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Digitalisation of Healthcare and the Problem of Digital Exclusion


Purpose: Digitalisation of healthcare in Poland which covers e-prescriptions, e-referrals, and sharing electronic medical records (EMR) on the P1 platform3 is supposed to be fully completed and implemented from 1 January 2021. The success of that implementation is strictly connected to the level of digital skills of both healthcare providers and healthcare service users. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate potential problems which may arise from the digitalisation of healthcare in social groups which are not adapted to using information and communication technologies (ICT) in their day-to-day lives, especially in case of the elderly.

Methodology: In order to indicate a potentially high level of digital exclusion in society, secondary data collected by Eurostat, Statistics Poland and CBOS4 were used. Problems in the healthcare sector, including those resulting from the digitalisation implemented in Poland, were presented against the backdrop of the changing law which applies here.

Findings: The introduction of digital solutions in the healthcare sector in Poland, including EMR, e-referrals, and e-prescriptions, was postponed numerous times, which can indicate the lack of the proper preparation of providers for a digital revolution. However, a potentially greater problem may lie with healthcare service users, especially considering the fact that such services are used mostly by the elderly. The phenomenon of digital exclusion, generally associated with the lack of skills necessary for using ICT, is frequently observed particularly among senior citizens. It can lead to social isolation which is a risk factor that influences the health of senior citizens and the quality of their lives.

Originality/value: Some of the issues resulting from the adopted solutions and the legislation governing healthcare in Poland, including the digitalisation of said healthcare, and proposals for amendments in this regard were provided in this interdisciplinary paper. It seems that those solutions could be used to reduce the threats of the digital exclusion of a significant part of Polish society, particularly in the group of seniors.

Open access
The Effects of Psychological Capital on Public Employees’ Burnout: An Example From Turkey


Purpose: The aim of this study is to review the effects of psychological capital on employees’ burn-out in the work environment. This research is paired with Self-Efficacy Theory, which emphasizes that the results of efforts and performances are the most significant sources of self-efficacy.

Methodology: Data collected from 416 Turkish workers employed at public institutions in Turkey were included in the analyses to identify the effects of psychological capital on burnout by using two different types of scales (burnout and psychological capital scales) into a single questionnaire form with Likert-type response scale. Beside the Reliability Analysis, different statistical valuation methods –such as regression and correlation analyses– have also been used.

Findings: The results of analyses conducted on the sample of 416 Turkish workers reveal that statistically significant relationships appear between self-efficacy and depersonalization, hope and low personal accomplishment, optimism and emotional exhaustion, optimism and depersonalization. Optimism is negatively related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization while positively and insignificantly related to low personal accomplishment. Both self-efficacy and optimism are significantly effective in explaining depersonalization. Hope positively and significantly contributes to explain the low personal accomplishment level of employees. On the other hand, optimism negatively and significantly contributes to emotional exhaustion.

Implications: As found in the results of this research, optimism will decrease emotional exhaustion. Resilient people can more easily adapt to changes in life. Organizations may focus not only on improving organizational structure but also foregrounding workers’ positive personality traits and healthy psychological capital systems.

Value: This research which emphasizes the effects of psychological capital on burnout levels of employees is as valuable as others in relevant literature with different research results which are more valuable than the other.

Open access
IT Reliability and Innovation in SMEs: Empirical Research


Purpose: Analysis of theoretical views and empirical research concerning the relation between IT reliability and the innovation level of organizations.

Methodology: The pilot (sample: 100) and main (sample: 400) survey was conducted in 2017 among SMEs located in Poland.

Findings: The empirical analysis shows that there is a relation between IT reliability and innovation level. Moreover, information reliability appears as a factor that may influence the organization’s ability to create innovations. Furthermore, service reliability proves to correlate with innovation level as well, which provides additional conclusions that support the realization that service is an important feature, which may also influence employees’ ability to employ IT appropriately and efficiently, thereby supporting the generation of innovation.

Implications: Findings enable us to indicate the direction of further promising research that should concern the relationship between IT reliability and innovation in the context of stages of the innovation process and different types of innovation, which should be analyzed separately.

Value: The article presents a new factor that may influence the possibility of creating various types of innovations. Usually, papers focus on IT systems, while the relationship between IT reliability and innovation allows us to look deeper into this relationship.

Open access
Managerial Discretion and Constraints: A Bounded Leadership Model


Purpose: We propose and test a new leadership model. Our model is an extension of the leaderplex model which proposes that leader cognitive and social complexities are linked with leader effectiveness indirectly, in a mediation scheme, through behavioral complexity. We enhance the leader-plex model with a leader’s degree of managerial discretion as the moderator of the links in this mediation format.

Methodology: We test our model with a moderated mediation approach (Baron-Kenny four-step procedure and Preacher-Hayes bootstrapping methods).

Findings: We use results of interviews with top leaders in Poland and demonstrate that a leader’s managerial discretion is a moderator affecting the mediation scheme assumed in the leaderplex model.

Limitations: The sample size is only 29 leaders. To preserve the respondents’ anonymity, their opinions were evaluated by only one researcher who interviewed them directly. The results may be country specific (Poland).

Originality: We define new boundary conditions for the leaderplex model by showing importance of a leader’s real position (managerial discretion) in an organization. Specifically, we show that the nature of the relationships between the variables of interest will change when a leader operates in one physical environment (e.g., high managerial discretion) rather than another (e.g., low managerial discretion).

Open access
The Role of Internship and Business Incubation Programs in Forming Entrepreneurial Intentions: an Empirical Analysis from Pakistan


Purpose: Entrepreneurship is a vital tool for the economic development of any country. As a field of research, entrepreneurship has become a diversified area of study. A plethora of studies appeared that investigate the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, most of them focus on personality traits and other psychological factors. However, the studies focus less on practical entrepreneurial education such as internship and business incubation. Thus, the current study seeks to fill this gap by empirically investigating the impact of business incubators and internship programs on student’s entrepreneurial intention in the Pakistani context.

Methodology: The authors collected data through a structured questionnaire from students and ran partial least square structural equation modeling technique by SmartPLS software.

Findings: The results show that business incubators and internship programs have a strong and positive statistically significant impact on entrepreneurial intentions.

Implication: The current study can help policy-makers get a better insight on entrepreneurship so as to improve its innovation, proactivity, and risk-taking ability and how these factors can amend the lack of entrepreneurial awareness among business students.

Open access
Why Managers Want to Be Mentors? The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation and the Anticipated Costs of Mentoring for the Propensity to Mentor by Managers in Formal Mentoring in Organizations


Purpose: The purpose of the research was to find out the correlation between the motivation and costs of internal or external locus of control and the propensity to mentor. Investment of time and personal energy was regarded as factors with an internal locus of control, whereas a lack of mentee’s achievement, problems caused by a mentee, unhealthy or unfriendly relation, and a risk to be replaced by a mentee were regarded as factors with an external locus of control. In the case of internal factors, their locus of control is the mentor him/herself while, in external factors, their locus is outside of the mentor and lies in a situation or an environment.

Methodology: A quantitative cross-sectional study among Polish managers.

Findings: First, the results show that uniquely intrinsic motivation relates to the propensity to mentor, while extrinsic motivation has no importance. Second, before deciding to mentor, managers estimate the costs of mentoring: the higher they are the lower the propensity to mentor. Third, the costs related to the internal locus of control – time and personal energy invested by a mentor in mentoring – are most important when deciding to mentor. The risk of destroying a mentor’s reputation, problems caused by a mentee, unfriendly or unhealthy relationship and a risk to be replaced by a mentee emerged as of little importance. Fourth, previous experience as a mentor or mentee positively influences the propensity to mentor.

Value: The study contributes to existing research, theory, and practice in the field of organizational behavior in the context of mentoring. The findings shed light on decision patterns in managers’ propensity to mentor and thoroughly explore the role of the anticipated cost of mentoring.

Open access
Book Review
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Disruptive Innovation in Automotive Retailing


Purpose: The paper explores the paradigm shift occurring in the automotive retailing industry since the advent of technological innovations and different solutions in mobility. Existing studies and literature focus on the specific aspects of this changing trend, which is why this paper concentrates on the holistic changes that include various approaches to the issue of disruptive innovation in automotive retailing.

Methodology: To answer the research questions, the article utilizes qualitative research approach in combination with inductive-interpretive analysis. Interviews with eight top-level professionals from the automotive industry reveal three different perspectives on the subject. The study analyzes interview results with coding methodology and MaxQDA software.

Findings: The findings center on two components of research: major trends and impacts. The trends include the changing approach towards usership rather than ownership and to clustered habitation in mega cities. What is evident is the stark impact of such trends as the rising popularity of battery electric vehicles, autonomous cars, and mobility as a service on the dealership model of retailing. The impacts include the falling need and demand for personal cars, the rise of large fleet services like car subscription or lower maintenance needs that are expected to drastically reduce the importance of dealership.

Limitations: To further understand the trends in automotive retailing, future researchers should focus on local trends in specific regions. Another limitation is linked with exclusive concentration on experienced professionals as sources of data.

Open access
Inequality in Economics: The Concept, Perception, Types, and Driving Forces


Purpose: The aim of the paper is to overview the research on inequalities in economics. The paper is based on mainstream and heterodox economic theories and approaches addressing inequality and its economic interdependence.

Methodology: Due to its positive and normative nature, inequality is a complex concept that eludes precise definition. The available application of mainstream and heterodox approach to study inequality and its economic interdependence allows for the identification of various components of inequality. Classifications that fall within the mainstream economics especially reveal less numerous and often even different types of inequalities compared to heterodox approaches. Moreover, what determines within-country inequality is the number of driving forces related to the factual and regulatory sphere of an economy.

Findings: This study does not exhaust the general debate over inequality in economics. The question remains about the state of research dedicated to the outcomes of inequality, for instance, perceived in its dynamic and historical perspective. Moreover, there emerges a need to overview the theoretical and empirical research dedicated to inequality in terms of not only its driving forces but also economic outcomes.

Open access
International Startups from Poland: Born Global or Born Regional?


Purpose: The article discusses the pace of internationalization by empirically verifying the speed of internationalization of Polish international firms and identifying which pattern is more frequently used by international startups from Poland: born global or born regional.

Methodology: The article employs a quantitative approach. It builds on a sample of 355 international businesses from Poland (CATI survey).

Findings: By using t test, U test, and ANOVA, the analysis showed a correlation between the company’s international strategy as a planning instrument and the speed and scope of internationalization.

Research limitations/implications: Based on prior studies from other parts of the globe, we assume that among Polish companies the number of born regionals – i.e. businesses that are international from their inception – is growing, while their activity is mainly restricted to the European Union. Among Polish international firms, there are many born global. In the studied sample (selected randomly), the share of born globals was 61.5%, and global startups 43%, which is a very high rate. The results enable to adopt a hypothesis that the number of Polish-born regionals is relatively high in comparison with the traditional path and born globals.

Originality/value: The article describes one of the first studies to (i) capture the phenomenon of born regionals in Poland and (ii) enrich empirical studies on emerging markets such as Poland.

Open access