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Digitalisation of Healthcare and the Problem of Digital Exclusion

Abstract

Purpose: Digitalisation of healthcare in Poland which covers e-prescriptions, e-referrals, and sharing electronic medical records (EMR) on the P1 platform3 is supposed to be fully completed and implemented from 1 January 2021. The success of that implementation is strictly connected to the level of digital skills of both healthcare providers and healthcare service users. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate potential problems which may arise from the digitalisation of healthcare in social groups which are not adapted to using information and communication technologies (ICT) in their day-to-day lives, especially in case of the elderly.

Methodology: In order to indicate a potentially high level of digital exclusion in society, secondary data collected by Eurostat, Statistics Poland and CBOS4 were used. Problems in the healthcare sector, including those resulting from the digitalisation implemented in Poland, were presented against the backdrop of the changing law which applies here.

Findings: The introduction of digital solutions in the healthcare sector in Poland, including EMR, e-referrals, and e-prescriptions, was postponed numerous times, which can indicate the lack of the proper preparation of providers for a digital revolution. However, a potentially greater problem may lie with healthcare service users, especially considering the fact that such services are used mostly by the elderly. The phenomenon of digital exclusion, generally associated with the lack of skills necessary for using ICT, is frequently observed particularly among senior citizens. It can lead to social isolation which is a risk factor that influences the health of senior citizens and the quality of their lives.

Originality/value: Some of the issues resulting from the adopted solutions and the legislation governing healthcare in Poland, including the digitalisation of said healthcare, and proposals for amendments in this regard were provided in this interdisciplinary paper. It seems that those solutions could be used to reduce the threats of the digital exclusion of a significant part of Polish society, particularly in the group of seniors.

Open access
The Dividend Policy of Companies Listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

Abstract

Dividend policy is created and formulated by companies. For this reason, the focus of the analysis is on the message conveyed by the information on the dividend payout, the relationship between the dividend and financial indicators, the continuity of the payout and the amount of the dividend itself. Decisions on the dividend payment include two basic issues: what portion of profits should be paid out over a certain period of time and whether the company should maintain a steady and stable growth rate. If a steady and stable growth rate is maintained, then the level of earnings will increase from year to year. This phenomenon is confirmed by the growing number of companies paying dividends. The purpose of the article is to indicate significant differences in stock prices before the dividend payment and after the dividend payment, and to indicate significant differences in stock prices before the announcement of the dividend right and after the announcement of the dividend right.

Open access
The Effects of Psychological Capital on Public Employees’ Burnout: An Example From Turkey

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study is to review the effects of psychological capital on employees’ burn-out in the work environment. This research is paired with Self-Efficacy Theory, which emphasizes that the results of efforts and performances are the most significant sources of self-efficacy.

Methodology: Data collected from 416 Turkish workers employed at public institutions in Turkey were included in the analyses to identify the effects of psychological capital on burnout by using two different types of scales (burnout and psychological capital scales) into a single questionnaire form with Likert-type response scale. Beside the Reliability Analysis, different statistical valuation methods –such as regression and correlation analyses– have also been used.

Findings: The results of analyses conducted on the sample of 416 Turkish workers reveal that statistically significant relationships appear between self-efficacy and depersonalization, hope and low personal accomplishment, optimism and emotional exhaustion, optimism and depersonalization. Optimism is negatively related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization while positively and insignificantly related to low personal accomplishment. Both self-efficacy and optimism are significantly effective in explaining depersonalization. Hope positively and significantly contributes to explain the low personal accomplishment level of employees. On the other hand, optimism negatively and significantly contributes to emotional exhaustion.

Implications: As found in the results of this research, optimism will decrease emotional exhaustion. Resilient people can more easily adapt to changes in life. Organizations may focus not only on improving organizational structure but also foregrounding workers’ positive personality traits and healthy psychological capital systems.

Value: This research which emphasizes the effects of psychological capital on burnout levels of employees is as valuable as others in relevant literature with different research results which are more valuable than the other.

Open access
IT Reliability and Innovation in SMEs: Empirical Research

Abstract

Purpose: Analysis of theoretical views and empirical research concerning the relation between IT reliability and the innovation level of organizations.

Methodology: The pilot (sample: 100) and main (sample: 400) survey was conducted in 2017 among SMEs located in Poland.

Findings: The empirical analysis shows that there is a relation between IT reliability and innovation level. Moreover, information reliability appears as a factor that may influence the organization’s ability to create innovations. Furthermore, service reliability proves to correlate with innovation level as well, which provides additional conclusions that support the realization that service is an important feature, which may also influence employees’ ability to employ IT appropriately and efficiently, thereby supporting the generation of innovation.

Implications: Findings enable us to indicate the direction of further promising research that should concern the relationship between IT reliability and innovation in the context of stages of the innovation process and different types of innovation, which should be analyzed separately.

Value: The article presents a new factor that may influence the possibility of creating various types of innovations. Usually, papers focus on IT systems, while the relationship between IT reliability and innovation allows us to look deeper into this relationship.

Open access
Managerial Discretion and Constraints: A Bounded Leadership Model

Abstract

Purpose: We propose and test a new leadership model. Our model is an extension of the leaderplex model which proposes that leader cognitive and social complexities are linked with leader effectiveness indirectly, in a mediation scheme, through behavioral complexity. We enhance the leader-plex model with a leader’s degree of managerial discretion as the moderator of the links in this mediation format.

Methodology: We test our model with a moderated mediation approach (Baron-Kenny four-step procedure and Preacher-Hayes bootstrapping methods).

Findings: We use results of interviews with top leaders in Poland and demonstrate that a leader’s managerial discretion is a moderator affecting the mediation scheme assumed in the leaderplex model.

Limitations: The sample size is only 29 leaders. To preserve the respondents’ anonymity, their opinions were evaluated by only one researcher who interviewed them directly. The results may be country specific (Poland).

Originality: We define new boundary conditions for the leaderplex model by showing importance of a leader’s real position (managerial discretion) in an organization. Specifically, we show that the nature of the relationships between the variables of interest will change when a leader operates in one physical environment (e.g., high managerial discretion) rather than another (e.g., low managerial discretion).

Open access
Monte Carlo Simulation Approach to Calculate Value at Risk: Application to WIG20 and MWIG40

Abstract

This paper reports our estimates of the Value at Risk using Monte Carlo simulations for which we developed a computer program. Our approach involves obtaining Monte Carlo parameters by fitting real historical data of different periods to probability distributions. We applied the algorithm to the WIG20 and mWIG40 stock indices, and performed simulations for the Value at Risk at 95% and 99% confidence intervals over six estimation periods ranging from 1 trading day to 250 trading days. This approach was evaluated using the percentage failures and the Kupiec Proportion of Failures test. Our results indicate that this method is highly influenced by the choice of past historical and estimation period lengths considered. Overall, we observed that the Monte Carlo computational scheme is a reliable method for quantifying VaR when parametrized well.

Open access
Performance Changes Around Banks Mergers and Acquisitions: Evidence from Poland

Abstract

This study investigates the influence of M&A on the performance of banks operating in Poland. We use a sample of 14 transactions that occurred in the Polish banking sector from 2001 to 2015. Our data set includes pre and post-merger accounting information covering a period of two years before and after the merger. We follow Pilloff’s [1996] approach to determine the average performance changes measured with ROAA and ROAE. According to the research results, M&As transactions seem to affect profitability as both ROAA and ROAE means change. However, these changes do not follow the same trend. The correlations between the acquirer’s pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAA and ROAE and merger-related changes in performance are significant and negative. The same situation is observed as regards the target pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAE and merger-related changes in performance. The results also suggest that large acquirers are associated with less successful M&A.

Open access
R&D Expenditure and the Role of Scientists

Abstract

An effective knowledge-based economy requires regular cooperation between science and business. This is possible thanks to enterprises that create and implement innovations The paper focuses on the recognition of R&D expenditure. This aims to verify if firms with a scientist on their board are more likely to invest in the R&D. We conduct a tobit panel analysis of over 18,000 Polish private firms combined with data on patents and scientists employed at universities. The findings show that firms with scientists on the supervisory board are likely to invest more in R&D. However, these investment in R&D of firms with a scientist on the board are financial constraint. Their growth depends on access to finance. Therefore, institutions in Poland should support and promote cooperation between science and business, aiming for the realization of the implementation research. This approach requires updated regulations in the accounting area relating to the recognition of R&D inputs and outcomes.

Open access
The Role of Internship and Business Incubation Programs in Forming Entrepreneurial Intentions: an Empirical Analysis from Pakistan

Abstract

Purpose: Entrepreneurship is a vital tool for the economic development of any country. As a field of research, entrepreneurship has become a diversified area of study. A plethora of studies appeared that investigate the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention, most of them focus on personality traits and other psychological factors. However, the studies focus less on practical entrepreneurial education such as internship and business incubation. Thus, the current study seeks to fill this gap by empirically investigating the impact of business incubators and internship programs on student’s entrepreneurial intention in the Pakistani context.

Methodology: The authors collected data through a structured questionnaire from students and ran partial least square structural equation modeling technique by SmartPLS software.

Findings: The results show that business incubators and internship programs have a strong and positive statistically significant impact on entrepreneurial intentions.

Implication: The current study can help policy-makers get a better insight on entrepreneurship so as to improve its innovation, proactivity, and risk-taking ability and how these factors can amend the lack of entrepreneurial awareness among business students.

Open access
Theory and Practice of Innovation Development in the Banking Sector

Abstract

The aim of this article is to systematise the approach to innovation in the economic theory and to define the indicators used to measure the innovativeness of world economies. The considerations are focused on innovation in the banking sector as it is one of the most innovative sectors worldwide. The identification of the stages of innovation development in this branch is worth emphasising, along with the description of its economic and legal determinants.

Open access