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Miroslava Vlčková, Zuzana Frantíková and Jaroslav Vrchota

Abstract

In most European countries, teleworking or homeworking is used in various forms that differ from one another by its legal regulation. The paper examines the SME’s in the Czech Republic from the perspective what makes them to adopt telework using the financial indicators. We hypothesized that employer adoption of telework would depend on some economic factors. The empirical evidence showed that a typical company that uses telework is a company with higher ratio of liabilities and therefore lower ratio of equity, a lower ratio of fixed assets, higher sales, lower inventory, higher labour productivity and higher value added per employee, higher return on equity, higher personnel costs, higher average wages. Within the analysed enterprises, 16 indicators were assessed; the 9 indicators showed the difference between companies that use telework and companies that do not use telework. The research shows a typical company that uses telework.

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Liliana E. Donath and Petru-Ovidiu Mura

Abstract

The paper investigates whether there is a convergence club stance for the Visegrad countries plus Romania and Bulgaria and the part played, in this process, by the implicit tax rates on labour and consumption, respectively. For the purpose of the research, the GDP per capita, productivity and unemployment are used as convergence indicators and dependent variables. The dataset covers the 1995–2016 timeframe and the analysis is based on a panel-model approach. The main results show that the implicit tax on labour has no significant effect on the convergence indicators while the implicit rates on consumption are statistically significant with negative influence. The interpretation of results is made considering a set of control and robustness variables where policy lessons derive from. The conclusion reflects on the policy lessons that can serve to accomplish the convergence club within selected CEE countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Romania.

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Tomáš Gongol and Radka Zahradníková

Abstract

The rapid development of IT technologies in the last few decades has also created increasing number of cross-border disputes. This trend is affected by the fact, that there are no border lines that we can find in the real world. Different law systems have to deal with the existence of this new, on state borders independent entity. In the perspective of law, internet is interesting because of its inability as a virtual space, to fit in the doctrine of legal state, by which the state exercises its authority and enforces its law on its territory. This traditional bond between the state, its territory and its law system is impaired, sometimes it is referred to as virtualization or delocalization of legal relationships. Delocalization has a great influence on determination of the decisive law system and court jurisdictions. In those cases, we need to distinguish substantive law and procedural law in order to determine court (or other institution) jurisdiction and law system which would be applied on the case. With regard to the topic of this article, we will deal with private law relationships with international elements. Unlawful use of trademarks on the internet raises a number of issues. One example is the use of trademarks on the internet and to what extent such use is infringing trademark rights on a specific territory. This paper deals particularly with the jurisdictional issues and how rules on private international law can assist in resolving these issues. The currently applicable EU Brussels I Regulation (Recast) allows infringers to be sued either in the place of the defendant’s domicile or in the place of the harmful event.

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Lucie Coufalová and Libor Žídek

Abstract

Based on the interviews with that time managers, the paper aims to find out whether ideology affected the dealing with labor force in the last two decades of the socialist regime in Czechoslovakia. Technically, the labor market was balanced and characterized by zero unemployment and low and highly equalized wages. However, actually, there was a permanent imbalance with the lasting dominance of demand over supply and overemployment. Increasing wages was, due to ideological and formal settings of the system nearly impossible, and thus the economic agents tried to find alternative “solutions” to this imbalance. This situation led to low motivation of the labor force and consequently to low productivity. The positive side was represented by relatively good relationships among the employees. We demonstrate on the interviews that in the clash between ideology and the market forces, the former was stronger and in fact prevented efficient functioning of the labor market.

Open access

Michael Christl and Dénes Kucsera

Abstract

This paper takes a closer look at the existing early retirement schemes in Austria and analyses whether early retirement imposes a financial burden on the pension system (actuarial neutrality). Additionally, we compute incentive-neutral deductions for early retirement. These deductions reflect the view of the individual, who faces option of retiring earlier or working another year. Incentive neutral deductions would imply that an individual is indifferent between both. Our results highlight substantial differences between both measures. While the current deduction rate of 5.1% in the Austrian age corridor is, on average, close to actuarial neutrality, it is lower than the incentive-neutral deductions. This indicates that there are financial incentives for early retirement, which may arise due to the Austrian tax system. Additionally, we show that both actuarial and incentive neutrality differ substantially across socio-economic characteristics, such as gender, wages and (early) retirement age.

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Katarína Kalesná

Abstract

The article analyses the significance of the ECJ preliminary ruling on competition law. Starting with the general characteristic of the preliminary ruling of the Court of Justice, its legal regulation in TFEU and its effects, it focuses on the concrete judgement of the Court (Tenth Chamber) of 7 February 2013 in Case C-68/12 at the request of the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic. It explains the preliminary questions and the background of the competition case that was the incentive for them. It describes the quite complicated cartel agreement of the three banks concerned and the impact of the ECJ preliminary ruling on the judgements/decisions of the case.

Open access

Polonca Kovac

Abstract

Good public governance requires participative networking to tackle the worst societal problems. Redefined administrative procedure as an instrument that should ensure efficient public policies is one of the key approaches in this respect. The objective of this article is to show, based on qualitative research methods, that in modern public administration, procedure is attributed a much different role than under the traditional Rechtsstaat doctrine. It has been evolving towards becoming a dialogue tool for the state and the citizens, increasingly recognised in Neo-Weberian and good governance models, also in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Administrative procedure’s modernised codification in CEE countries, grounded in public administration theory, EU and case law, is in this article seen as of the utmost importance to apply in the region to develop its governance capacity. The article addresses said issues and provides a specific outline as to how to systematically and proportionally codify administrative procedural law in this sense on a national scale. The author proposes a concrete, holistic outline to redefine respective codification within contemporary public governance models. This outline incorporates minimum joint fundamental principles, e.g. the right to be heard. Following the principle of proportionality, in addition a more detailed codification is suggested by more formalised proceedings in the case of the collision of legally protected interests. The principles, such as participation, would apply for any administrative acts, resulting from legislative policy-making or single-case decision-making, and judicial reviews thereof alike. Such an approach should ensure a balanced recognition and effective protection of parties and public interest.

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Hana Lipovská, Lucie Coufalová and Libor Žídek

Abstract

Rational agents react to incentives in the market economy as well as in the centrally planned economy. Economic laws are persistent regardless of the economic system. The legislative system changes the outcome of the game between economic agents and managers. The aim of this paper is to show how rational agents reacted to legislative incentives in the Soviet-type economy in Czechoslovakia in the 1970s and 1980s, that is, how they reacted to the general shortage in the centrally planned economy. Based on the original survey among former managers as well as on the legislative sources from the 1970s and 1980s, a taxonomy was made of economic reactions to the shortage economy. This survey was possibly the last chance to map the experiences of socialist managers who tried to run companies in the centrally planned economy. We distinguish plan manipulation in order to ensure payment bonuses; bribery in order to obtain short-supplied inputs and the creation of reserves for the purpose of fulfilling the plan. It was shown that, if the rational agent wanted to obey the higher law, he was forced to ignore lower legislation.

Open access

Elena Fifeková, Eduard Nežinský and Edita Nemcová

Abstract

National (global) competitiveness became the central issue during the global crisis. Using the values of the three main subdimensions of the Global Competitiveness Index, we propose alternative DEA-based competitiveness indicators. In our approach, the index is nested in the more general measure of the competitiveness-given-performance indicator. We find that globally competitive European countries do not transform competitiveness into income per capita efficiently. Decomposition of the scores suggests that most of the relative inefficiency concentrates in innovation activity. The results proved robust against the CCR model used in previous research as well as principal component analysis.

Open access

Pavla Bednářová

Abstract

Most quantitative studies deal with the costs of transparency lobbying and give little or no attention to quantifying the benefits. The aim of the article is to determine options for increasing lobbying transparency and their evaluation and comparison from the viewpoint of direct and indirect benefits. Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) isused. Five basic options are identified. Option I is the possibility of increasing the transparency of lobbying by measures introduced on lobbyists. Option II represents an increase of transparency in terms of lobbying targets. Option III is defined as an increase in lobbying transparency by means of sunshine principles and the increase of lobbying transparency by monitoring and sanctions is included in Option IV. All five options are evaluated from the perspective of realized direct and indirect benefits. The selection of the most suitable option will be carried out in relation with the presupposed incurred regulatory costs of lobbying transparency increase.