In this study, the existence of multiple bubbles in 15 selected countries is researched by means of the GSADF unit root test developed by Phillips, Shi, and Yu (2015). The data set consists of a weighted average of the monthly price/earnings ratios with the different start dates for countries whose data could accessed. As a result of the conducted analysis, the existence of multiple bubbles was detected for all the countries examined. The results demonstrate that bubbles in stock markets occur before the local and global crisis periods. We therefore conclude that the GSADF method may be used as one of the early warning systems of a financial crisis. It is significant for policymakers and investors to know these signs in terms of financial stability and profitable investments.
The aim of this study is to compare Lithuanian and Swedish pension systems from the point of view of their design and performance in order to elaborate reasonable recommendations to Lithuanian pension policy based on the best Swedish experience. Swedish income, premium and guaranteed old-age pensions system are compared with the analogous Lithuanian system of the “first,” “second” pillars and the “social” pensions. The main features of the systems are discussed, and the performance of the systems, mainly from the point of view of adequacy, is compared. The differences in system design and performance are identified, and the possible reasons of these differences are examined. Special attention is paid to differences in financing and the approach to the definition of benefits. The Lithuanian pension points approach is compared to the Swedish Notional Defined Contribution (NDC) approach. Each system is analyzed, and the relevance of transforming the Lithuanian first pillar pensions into a NDC system is examined.
The purpose of this research is to examine the factors that determine the dividend policy of non-financial firms listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) in Poland and that of the annually paid dividends. Up to now, many empirical studies related to dividend policy were carried out, showing the differentiation of factors affecting the dividend policy and their interaction. Thus, with this study, it would be possible to give a view on the dividend policy of corporations listed on the WSE for the period from 2008 to 2016. The study covers non-financial companies listed on the WSE in Poland. The Tobit regression is used to identify the impact of factors influencing the companies’ distribution of dividends. The variables that may explain a firm’s dividend decision and that were used in this study are selected based on the theory and available empirical researches and then also determined by data availability. These are profitability, investment opportunities, measures of size, leverage, and liquidity. As a result of this study, the factors that determine the dividend policy of companies were verified in the context of the companies listed on the WSE. Moreover, it indicates which of the existing theories on dividend policy could be applied to the capital markets of Poland. Thus, it provides new insights into the theory of dividend policy.
Vaida Breimerytė, Vytautas Kėdaitis, Algirdas Miškinis and Kęstutis Trainavičius
Huge differences between the territories that are divided into the city and district municipalities are found after examining theoretical and methodological literature, obtaining abundant statistical information on the status of health care institutions in Lithuania, disclosing the system of indicators describing that status, and taking into account the analysis of the data of all the statistic residents of the Territorial Health Insurance Funds (THIF) and those registered at the outpatient primary personal health care institutions (OPPHCI). The number of residents who have registered at the OPPHCI of city municipalities is different from the rates provided by the statistics. Therefore, in the calculation of health indicators, a meaningful selection of them will more accurately reflect the status of health care facilities. Of these indicators, it is important to select not only those that best describe the existing medical care level in the municipalities but those that are also informative. The system of indicators was selected on the basis of the Delphi method. This article analyzes the state of the health care institutions in Lithuania and the qualitative and quantitative indicators of health care and their evaluation at the municipal level. The authors of this article used multivariate statistical methods in evaluating the state of health care institutions. The reliability and the validity of the obtained results are verified by two models; thus, the stability and suitability of the models are tested in investigating the state of health care institutions in Lithuania. The final aim of the study is to evaluate the administrative units of different territories and, from the medical level perspective, identify the best performing and most lagging municipalities.
Hysen Ismajli, Edona Perjuci, Vlora Prenaj and Medina Braha
This paper focuses on determinants and their impact on the audit of public enterprises in Kosovo. In addition, it analyzes the impact of audit quality on improving the transparency and accountability of those enterprises. The study also assesses factors that affect the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of information in the audit reports of the Kosovo National Audit Office. The data were obtained based on observations, documentation, questionnaires, and interviews. Respondents were internal auditors of public enterprises in Kosovo as well as external auditors of the Kosovo National Audit Office. This research was designed using primary and secondary sources of data and was carried out in accordance with statistical analysis methods using the average algebraic size method and absolute variation indicators.
The findings of this paper suggest that external auditors consider the potential risk of errors and fraud as being high, that they have aversive attitudes against errors and fraud, and that there exists for them a negative relationship between errors, fraud and financial reporting. Also, the quality of external audit positively affects the detection of fraud and anomalies within financial statements.
Alla Sokolovska, Larysa Rainova and Tetiana Zatonatska
This paper considers the mechanism of direct state support for students in European countries using loans and grants: their functions, forms, schemes, and conditions for provision. The peculiarities of the state preferential educational loan in Ukraine and the reasons for its curtailment since 2011 are determined. Nowadays, it is established that the main form of state support for Ukrainian students who receive higher education in public procurement comes with academic and social scholarships, whereas students who receive higher education under a contract of preferential state lending yet after the curtailment of the program are deprived of any state support. The necessity of restoring the program of preferential state lending for students and the directions of its improvement, such as the establishment of an interest rate on a loan based on the level of inflation, the establishment of a minimum amount of annual payments on a loan as a percentage of the minimum salary, the distribution of the risk of non-repayment of a loan between the state, the borrower and his parent, are all substantiated. This is done taking into account the financial capabilities of the Ukrainian state and the high levels of hidden income. We consider the establishment of conditions needed for the development of a system of commercial educational loans, by providing for the provision of a state guarantee on it and partial state subsidy of interest rates. We consider the areas of improvement of scholarship support of students and substantiate the necessity of introducing education at least for orphans, children deprived of parental care, and disabled children.
This paper is about the classic methods used in the analysis of economics. More precisely, the R.B.Q. (Rational, Behavioral, and Quantified) model is about rational economics and behavioral economic analysis in conjunction with the quantification procedure (Q.E. method). Therefore, in this work are submitted the most common methodological approaches used in economics including a form of their combination. What follows is a critical examination that extendedly scrutinizes the terminology of axiomatic methods. One of the aims of this paper to represent the special characteristics of rational economics in comparison to the case of behavioral economics. Then provided is an analysis wherein the issues relevant to this are represented, and on the basis of which the main differences between the two concepts are showed. Hence, the aim here is to show the crucial attributes of these concepts. This study also uses a quantification method to show the behavior of these two economic theories within their relation to one another, demonstrating a complete view of them in a single economic model.
The present work analyzes the effects of goods and capital market integration on welfare. In an imperfectly competitive industry with unionized labor, openness to competition via exports, the possibility of holding minority stakes into a rival company and undertaking Greenfield Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) exemplify product and capital market liberalization, respectively. Challenging the “lieu commune” that liberalization a priori improves the social welfare of an economy, making use of a game-theoretic approach, it is shown that a domestic government should design the appropriate interventions in product and capital markets depending on the precise pattern of economic integration.
Veronika Fenyves, Elvira Böcskei, Zoltán Bács, Zoltán Zéman and Tibor Tarnóczi
The main aim of the study to examine the extent to which the companies of a specific Hungarian sector fulfil their obligation to provide information in their notes to the financial statements as stipulated by the Accounting Act. Accordingly, it should be examined whether the notes to financial statements contains the required data regarding the balance sheets of companies investigated. For the analyses, it was used the notes to the financial statement of 8,226 companies with Hungarian headquarters, which are regulated by the Hungarian Accounting Act and which have information-technology services as the main business activity. It was investigated 95.78% of the financial reports containing the notes. The analysis was performed using text mining method, utilizing every available notes to the financial statement of the sector. Findings of the study reveal that the amount of published information shows greater and lesser differences and in many cases, the quantity of published data does not fulfil even the minimal obligations stipulated legally.