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Analysis of the Notes to the Financial Statement Related to Balance Sheet in Case of Hungarian Information-Technology Service Companies

Abstract

The main aim of the study to examine the extent to which the companies of a specific Hungarian sector fulfil their obligation to provide information in their notes to the financial statements as stipulated by the Accounting Act. Accordingly, it should be examined whether the notes to financial statements contains the required data regarding the balance sheets of companies investigated. For the analyses, it was used the notes to the financial statement of 8,226 companies with Hungarian headquarters, which are regulated by the Hungarian Accounting Act and which have information-technology services as the main business activity. It was investigated 95.78% of the financial reports containing the notes. The analysis was performed using text mining method, utilizing every available notes to the financial statement of the sector. Findings of the study reveal that the amount of published information shows greater and lesser differences and in many cases, the quantity of published data does not fulfil even the minimal obligations stipulated legally.

Open access
Determinants of Shadow Economy in Eastern European Countries

Abstract

In this article the relationship between shadow economy and its’ determinants has been examined. Ten Eastern countries from European Union were chosen due to specific particularities, which may cause higher shadow economy levels in the investigated countries compared with the EU average. Time span of 2003-2016 was selected, as 2017 data has yet to be released at the time of the analysis. Article consists of examination of the current situation and shadow economy trends in Eastern European countries; overview of shadow economy scientific literature followed by hypothesis, which are examined by constructing regression models. Models aim to distinguish the relationship between selected determinants and shadow economy size. Scientific literature analysis revealed that increase of tax burden on labor is seen as a primary reason for the increase of shadow economy, however, such relation has not been identified. Furthermore, results show that unemployment and self-employed people ratio affect shadow economy insignificantly. This suggests that further analysis is needed. Nonetheless, regression model has not rejected the hypotheses of corruption level, income inequality, business freedom and GDP per capita effect on shadow economy. Thus, it can be stated that these variables are determinants of shadow economy in Eastern European countries.

Open access
Discretion of the Monetary Policy: An Exemplification with Bolivia

Abstract

In this paper, we evaluate and quantify the role of the discretion of the monetary policy in an open small and open economy (the case of Bolivia). The results suggest that conventional instruments of the Central Bank respond in different ways: interest rates present a sensitive/elastic response to output gap (actual economic cycle) [1.8]; an inelastic mechanism to inflation [0.5]. On the other hand, open market operations in the Central Bank responds elastically to inflation [1.2] and insensible to the output gap. These results are robust to alternative specification utilizing the Generalized Method of moments (GMM), for the quarterly period from 2000(T1)-2015(T4).

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Does Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Contribute to Poverty Reduction? Empirical Evidence from Central European and Western Balkan Countries

Abstract

This paper seeks to empirically examine the validity of nexus between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and poverty reduction in the context of twelve European transition and post-transition countries divided in two regions, between 2000 and 2015. The empirical analysis investigates whether some variations in poverty reduction are influenced by countries’ FDI performance and lead by progress in the EU integration process. The study finds that the nexus between FDI and poverty reduction varies between two regions (the Western Balkan region and the Central Europe region). While the relationship between FDI and poverty reduction has a positive effect in the Western Balkan region, it is insignificant and negative in the Central European region. In addition, the findings confirm some earlier assumptions that FDI impacts poverty reduction more strongly in poorer countries (the Western Balkan region) than in wealthier countries (the Central European region).

Open access
Employees’ Creativity Development within Innovative Processes of Enterprise

Abstract

Business practice requires creativity to be considered an important part of management because innovation is the result of it. The aim of the paper is to find out how is the creativity of employees supported in food enterprises in Slovakia. After evaluating the information obtained from structured interview and questionnaire based on the 5-degree Likert scale, there were used one way ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test as well as Cronbach alpha and Spearman’s correlation tests. The survey also highlighted the significant innovation potential of food enterprises in Slovakia. Innovation and creativity development activities can be stimulated through the use of various techniques, with some having a specific effect on a subset of innovation types and others being applicable to a wide variety of innovations.

Open access
Examining the Validity of Wagner’s Law versus Keynesian Hypothesis: Evidence from Turkey’s Economy

Abstract

The direction of the causality relationship between public expenditures and economic growth is one of the most controversial issues of the literature, which also causes great disagreements in the design process of economic policies. There are two approaches to this subject, which are opposite each other and called “Wagner’s Law” and “Keynesian Hypothesis”. This paper aims to examine the validity of Wagner’s law and Keynesian proposition in Turkey using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model over the period of 1998-2016. The findings supported the “Keynesian Hypothesis”, which advocates a one-way causality relationship from public spending to national output. More specifically, the results of the study showed that the effect of public expenditures on economic growth was positive in the short term and negative in the long term. From an economic policy standpoint, it can be argued that policymakers can promote Turkish economic growth through expansionary fiscal policies in the short run.

Open access
An Investigation into the Level of Financial Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract

Financial inclusion is crucial for redistribution of economic resources between the deficit and surplus units in an economy. Despite the importance of financial inclusion, especially for economic growth of developing regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevailing level financial inclusion remain an open question. Against this background, this study investigates the level of financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa between 2005 and 2015. This study employs secondary data obtained from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The data obtained was subjected to Principal Component Analysis to determine the level of financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa. The findings show that Sub-Saharan Africa has a medium level of financial inclusion during the observed period with Index of Financial Inclusion (IFI) value of 0.095023. The study concludes that Sub-Saharan Africa has high propensity to achieve a high level of financial inclusion in the region if more outlets of financial institutions are established.

Open access
The Use of Demographic and Psychographic Segmentation to Creating Marketing Strategy of Brand Loyalty

Abstract

With growing competition, loyal customers have become the key to the company’s success. Brand loyalty has been a central structure for marketing for almost a century, yet this research topic is still modern and up to date. The aim of this contribution is to answer the research question of whether there are different segments of customers based on demographic and psychographic aspects that would differ in the level of brand loyalty in the company. In other words, do certain groups of company’s customers (according to demographic or psychographic segmentation) have a higher degree of loyalty to the company’s brand? To answer the research question, we have identified hypotheses expressing the existence of a statistical dependence between individual segmentation variable and the level of brand loyalty. Based on statistical testing of established hypotheses, we have confirmed the existence of certain company’s segments that have a higher degree of loyalty.

Open access
Examining Different Factors of Income Tax Non-Compliance in a Small Sample in Bangladesh

Abstract

Income tax non-compliance is worldwide delinquent and with the small volume of income tax collection Bangladesh has been facing its demerits for a long time. There is still a gap to measure income tax non-compliance behaviour in a micro direct approach. This study uses EVSCALE instrument to calculate the individual income tax non-compliance as a latent variable. The instrument consists of 15 items in Likert scale to measure the non-compliance behaviour of a person. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of income tax non-compliance and key factors of EVSCALE in Bangladesh. The study collected opinions of taxpayers by primary data collection following a convenient sampling method. Logit regression analysis finds out that log monthly income, tax morale, tax education and occupation significantly influence income tax non-compliance. Exploratory factor analysis identifies six key factors that have consistency and shared variance. However, Cronbach’s alpha shows that five key factors have high reliability among six factors. According to rules of thumb, this study suggests that EVSCALE instrument needs modification by adding more items. This study argues that increasing participation in taxation system is a feasible policy for government instead of increasing tax rate.

Open access