The article takes up the issue of the characteristics and the implementation of the dividend policy of companies quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in Warsaw for the period 2008-2017. The purpose of the research is the characteristics of dividend policy company satisfaction mechanism, including an assessment of its actual implementation. To study the characteristics and implementation of the dividend policy by the company’s dividend, eventually it was necessary to classify the companies that during the period of 2009-2018 paid dividends for the period 2008-2017 without a break (at 31.07.2018). The test results indicate a high average annual growth rate of paid dividends. Unfortunately, more than half of the companies developed a dividend policy and those that have it as the basis for their decision on the amount of payment of dividends indicate net profit and investment needs.
This paper examines the mixture of distribution properties associated with heteroskedastic excess Bitcoin return data, using the volume of Google search queries as a proxy for the information arrival time, from a monthly data sampling period of June 2010 to May 2019. The results show that the volatility coefficients become highly statistically insignificant when the lagged volume of search queries is included in the conditional variance equation of the GJR-GARCH-M model. This clearly suggests that the volume of search queries is shown to provide significant explanatory power regarding the variance of heteroskedastic excess Bitcoin return, which can be traced from the ARCH process defined in the GJR-GARCH-M specification. A significant negative relationship between the conditional volatility and the volume of search queries indicates that Internet (online) information arrival reduces the risk premium in the Bitcoin market, which may improve market stability.
The aim of the study is to determine the level of financial literacy of academic youth from rural areas in the V4 Group countries, as well as to compare the results obtained with the level of financial literacy of young people from cities. The source of data used for analysis and inference were primary information obtained from own research (PAPI method, 900 people). The research used a set of questions to assess the level of financial literacy of adults proposed by the OECD INFE. In addition to primary sources, secondary sources were also used to achieve the goal. The measures of descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (F) were used. The level of financial literacy was determined at the medium level, which may indicate the low effectiveness of financial education measures implemented at different levels of education. The component of financial literacy where students from rural areas had the lowest scores was basic financial knowledge. Only 43% of people from rural areas achieved the minimum target score.
This article is an attempt to analyze the existing solutions in the field of the protection of personal data. Training and advisory materials on this subject prepared by numerous law firms (32) were analyzed, providing a valid explanation, understanding and implementation of the new obligations in the field of data protection. In addition the author conducted pilot interviews in accounting offices (17) concerning the protection of personal data to indicate the approach of service providers to the performance of the tasks in the field of personal data protection. The key findings of the study are: noticeable increase in the interest of the contracting parties in data protection issues, as well as presenting their positive aspects along with possible problems in their practical application. An important contribution of the author is also the presentation of the key points of agreements which the parties should pay attention to in order to avoid misunderstandings.
Self-deception is classified as the one of the decision-making errors which impede making reasonable decisions. The efficiency of the financial market is associated with the belief that all the participants of the market behave reasonably. They maximise their utility and are able to process all incoming information in the correct way. Considering the fact that financial market anomalies happen, it should be considered that the efficiency of this market is a specific situation in which it may be found. In this work, the research results of the conducted experiment were described. The hypothesis was studied that persons of a higher financial status are more likely to undertake more risky financial decisions which may result in obtaining higher collected financial funds. As a result of the conducted experiment the working hypothesis was confirmed. Due to self-deception consisting in strong identification with the chosen status in the game, strengthened with their own convictions regarding the behaviour of particular professional group representatives, persons with a higher status showed a much greater tendency to risk than persons with a lower status.
The purpose of this paper is to study the standard firm-factor determinants on capital structure of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). To this end, we analyzed small and medium sized firms in Kazakhstan, where all sectors were considered. We use panel data methods to investigate the determinants of capital structure for non-financial SMEs in Kazakhstan. This study examines the impact of key determinants such as asset tangibility, size, growth, profitability and tax rate of SMEs. The trade-off theory and the pecking order theory of capital structure guided this study. The results suggest that despite some differences in the influence of factors on the capital structure, most of the determinants presented by the theory of finance appear indeed to be relevant for the Kazakhstan small and medium business sector.
Dividend policy is created and formulated by companies. For this reason, the focus of the analysis is on the message conveyed by the information on the dividend payout, the relationship between the dividend and financial indicators, the continuity of the payout and the amount of the dividend itself. Decisions on the dividend payment include two basic issues: what portion of profits should be paid out over a certain period of time and whether the company should maintain a steady and stable growth rate. If a steady and stable growth rate is maintained, then the level of earnings will increase from year to year. This phenomenon is confirmed by the growing number of companies paying dividends. The purpose of the article is to indicate significant differences in stock prices before the dividend payment and after the dividend payment, and to indicate significant differences in stock prices before the announcement of the dividend right and after the announcement of the dividend right.
This paper reports our estimates of the Value at Risk using Monte Carlo simulations for which we developed a computer program. Our approach involves obtaining Monte Carlo parameters by fitting real historical data of different periods to probability distributions. We applied the algorithm to the WIG20 and mWIG40 stock indices, and performed simulations for the Value at Risk at 95% and 99% confidence intervals over six estimation periods ranging from 1 trading day to 250 trading days. This approach was evaluated using the percentage failures and the Kupiec Proportion of Failures test. Our results indicate that this method is highly influenced by the choice of past historical and estimation period lengths considered. Overall, we observed that the Monte Carlo computational scheme is a reliable method for quantifying VaR when parametrized well.
Katarzyna Budny, Joanna Krasodomska and Katarzyna Świetla
This study investigates the influence of M&A on the performance of banks operating in Poland. We use a sample of 14 transactions that occurred in the Polish banking sector from 2001 to 2015. Our data set includes pre and post-merger accounting information covering a period of two years before and after the merger. We follow Pilloff’s  approach to determine the average performance changes measured with ROAA and ROAE. According to the research results, M&As transactions seem to affect profitability as both ROAA and ROAE means change. However, these changes do not follow the same trend. The correlations between the acquirer’s pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAA and ROAE and merger-related changes in performance are significant and negative. The same situation is observed as regards the target pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAE and merger-related changes in performance. The results also suggest that large acquirers are associated with less successful M&A.
An effective knowledge-based economy requires regular cooperation between science and business. This is possible thanks to enterprises that create and implement innovations The paper focuses on the recognition of R&D expenditure. This aims to verify if firms with a scientist on their board are more likely to invest in the R&D. We conduct a tobit panel analysis of over 18,000 Polish private firms combined with data on patents and scientists employed at universities. The findings show that firms with scientists on the supervisory board are likely to invest more in R&D. However, these investment in R&D of firms with a scientist on the board are financial constraint. Their growth depends on access to finance. Therefore, institutions in Poland should support and promote cooperation between science and business, aiming for the realization of the implementation research. This approach requires updated regulations in the accounting area relating to the recognition of R&D inputs and outcomes.