Geotourism is still a relatively new direction of tourism and its development is bound mainly to the territory of geoparks. Many geoparks try to develop different types of geo-products with a focus on different target groups. However, the nature of these products is very different and their development is evident mainly in the time scale. In the past, simple forms of interpretation and application of geoproducts were popular, whereas currently, modern technologies such as animations or augmented reality are thriving. This is mainly due to the better availability of technological equipment. At the same time, a number of geoparks boast of above-average interpreters, who are able to render and simplify difficult geological topics. This also applies to their ability to create of new geoproducts, where the need to abbreviate and condense information is evident. The results of the study show a positive trend in the use of modern methods in geoscience interpretation and in the creation of new geoproducts. At the same time, it is clear that without a modern concept it is very difficult to reach the current visitors. Therefore, such a concept is necessary in order to develop geoscientific issues, especially in the area of geoparks.
Petra Vašaničová, Eva Litavcová and Sylvia Jenčová
Accommodation has an important role in the development of tourism in every country we perceive as the tourism destination. Due to the increasing competition in the tourism industry, it is necessary to analyze the occupancy of the accommodation establishments, and thus to find specific segments of the market, which the tourism development strategy should focus on. The aim of this study is to describe, which types of the selected accommodation establishments are preferred in the Slovak Republic by foreign tourists with a special focus on seven specific nationalities (Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Ukrainian, German, Austrian, and Russian nationalities). Formally, the hypothesis being tested is whether there is a statistically significant relationship in the choice of the accommodation establishment by tourists of any of these nationalities over time. In addition, we aim to discuss the development of the selected types of the accommodation establishments in the Slovak Republic in 2014–2017, and at the same time to emphasize the development of the hotels according to hotel classes. The results showed that in the Slovak Republic, the most numerous groups of the accommodation establishments by their type, were hotels, motels, botels, and guesthouses, and these establishments are also the most used by foreign tourists. Furthermore, the set hypothesis has been confirmed, on the basis of the results of Friedman ANOVA and the Kendall coefficient of concordance.
Zohreh Zara Zarezadeh, H. Raymond Rastegar and Ulrike Gretzel
Acknowledging the significant advancement of social media, the role and impact of social media has been widely discussed in tourism research. As a result, it has become increasingly difficult to obtain an overview of the knowledge produced in relation to the topic. Review studies provide such overviews to guide future research efforts. This study reviews and analyses 152 tourism-related social media publications since 2008. Based on a qualitative systematic analysis of publications that address the topic from a consumer perspective, the paper identifies publication trends and highlights patterns in the topics, aims, and research designs of existing publications. Specifically, it captures a broader array of consumer-centric topics than previous reviews and highlights methodological gaps. Moreover, the research argues that there is still ample room for more research on social media in tourism, particularly as the existing literature neglects social media beyond review platforms while demonstrating that user-generated content greatly influences tourist behaviours and experiences.
The main objective of this article was to evaluate the impact of historical events on the visit rate of Bardejov Spa in various periods of its development (in the years of 1814–2016). The collection of information on clients’ spa visits, especially the oldest data, was difficult (19th century and 1st and 2nd World War). Much information was available only in the State Archive of the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic in Hungarian and Latin. Some data for several years were not available at all, and some data were not recorded in writing. The paper summarizes the history of the spa, natural medical sources, spa treatment and indications. At present, the number of guests has an increasing trend, as evidenced by the visit rate for 2016, as well as by current data for 2017. In 2016, Bardejov Spa reached a pick of the visit rate with 25,863 clients. In 2017, there were 27,170 clients. The main clients are the Slovaks, about 90%.
Zoos are one of the most visited tourist attractions worldwide - we should perceive them, therefore, not only as places where animals are kept, but also as places frequented by large numbers of people. This is why we talk of zoo tourism. However, there are different definitions of a zoo. This wide range of possible approaches to what actually the zoo is poses a major methodological problem for the research analysis as well as for the zoo management and related legislation. Zoos are historically and socially determined. We can talk not only about the evolution of zoos but also about the co-evolution of zoos alongside many types of zoos. Nowadays, there is no doubt that there is a large number of modern and naturalistic zoos oriented on conservation, but there are also many zoos designed as popular animal-based attractions where animals live in unsuitable conditions. The principal aim of this article is to introduce and discuss problematic approaches to what zoos are and to suggest a use of a wider zoo definition.
This study focuses on the theoretical analysis of social interaction and relationship between guests and hosts from the perspective of anthropology of tourism. In the 1960s and 1970s, attention was paid predominantly to anthropological reflection of negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism on host communities. However, towards the end of the 1980s and during the 1990s the research focus began to shift towards an analysis and interpretation of the influence of commodification on the perceptions of identity and authenticity of the host culture, while the positive aspects of tourism began to be recognized as well. This study aims to present an overview of the basic approaches within the anthropology of tourism to social interaction between guests and hosts. The objective of the study is to provide a summary of miscellaneous approaches to and views on this issue.
The mining industry leaves behind a large number of tangible or intangible remains. A part of them can be used by different actors as a mining heritage. Specific cultural or social values and meanings, which remind of the importance of mining in the past and today, are represented through this mining heritage. To preserve them, the heritage must be passed to future generations. One of the ways is mining tourism. However, the relation between the mining heritage and tourism is not simple as the complex mining heritage has many specific features that differ from the traditional tourist attractions and conceal many pitfalls. The aspects of authenticity or approaches to heritage interpretation are also important.
Nowadays, tourism sector needs to adapt to a very fast changing environment and stronger competitiveness. Smart tourism describes the current stage of tourism development influenced by the evolution of information technologies and is becoming a promising way how to face the new market conditions. The aim of the paper is to review the conceptual foundations of smart tourism and to analyse the development of smart tourism initiative in Central Europe, specifically in Slovakia. The paper adopts an exploratory multiple case study methodology, focusing on information technologies used by Central European tourists, willingness of data sharing and the use of the state-of-the-art technologies in tourism businesses. Moreover, the smart concept is examined based on the (SA)6 framework in three tourism destinations. The paper concludes that smart tourism should not be the ultimate goal, but with the help of technology, innovation, and cooperation, it should bring better tourist experience, wellbeing of residents, enhance effectiveness and competitiveness of businesses and destinations, and lead to overall competitive sustainability.
Complex systems are characterised by a huge amount of components, which are highly linked with each other. Tourism is one of the examples of complex systems collecting various activities leading to the enrichment of travellers in the view of receiving new experiences and increasing economic prosperity of specific destinations. The complex systems can be investigated with various bottom-up and top-down approaches. The multi-agent-based modelling is the bottom-up approach that is focused on the representation of individual entities for the exploration of possible interactions among them and their effects on surrounding environments. These systems are able to integrate knowledge of socio-cultural, economic, physical, biological or environmental systems for in-silico models development, which can be used for experimentation with a system. The main aim of the presented text is to introduce links between tourism, complexity and to advocate usefulness of the multi-agent-based systems for the exploration of tourism and its sustainability. The evaluation of suitability of the multi-agent systems in tourism is based on the investigation of fundamental characteristics of these two systems and on the review of specific applications of the multi-agent systems in sustainable tourism.
Multimedia communication through social media has been experiencing constantly growing significance in the field of airline marketing. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to find out and, with the help of both qualitative and quantitative analyses, describe the way YouTube is used by airlines. The research was conducted in the form of a comparative study with the objective of identifying the difference between YouTube performance of full-service carriers (FSCs) and low-cost carriers (LCCs). The intention was to identify which factors influence the effectiveness of airline marketing conducted via YouTube an as well as the way in which they do it. Analysis of selected data was facilitated by social media analytics tool SocialBakers, content analyses and a correlation analysis of YouTube metrics, selected on the base of previous research results. The research data were collected twice during the year 2017 in order to reflect changes over time. Research results showed that FSCs build their YouTube channels more systematically than LCCs. FSCs offer a substantially wider range of video topics and often sort out topics of their videos in a more detailed way. Regarding the basic metrics of YouTube channels (total number of views, number of subscribers), FSCs surpass LCCs significantly. One reason for their much higher rate of views is the fact that FSCs use celebrities more frequently, and frequently they offer high-quality impression/relationship airline presentation.