Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 502 items for :

  • Physical Education x
Clear All
Open access

Petr Schlegel and Adam Křehký

Summary

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) has become an independent sport discipline with its own distinctive aspects. It can no longer be perceived as before, as a compilation of other martial arts. MMA shows originality in training methods, health aspects, performance requirements or even moral-volitional qualities. The aim of the paper is to analyse the physiological aspects of MMA in both training and combat loads, to discuss the issue of injuries in MMA and to provide a comparison with other martial arts. Studies focusing directly on MMA wrestlers have been selected. These have included both amateur and professional athletes. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scholar were used as sources. MMA ranks among sports with high-intensity workload, wrestlers achieve high levels of lactate and other metabolic markers. They need above-average aerobic capacity and perform well in upper body strength tests. Injury rates in MMA do not differ significantly from those in professional-level martial arts. Most injuries are associated with lacerations on the head. The requirements of extensive workload during performance must be reflected in training. Encouragement of aerobic and anaerobic endurance abilities in conjunction with optimum strength training seems crucial. It is essential to include prophylaxis as regards head concussions and strive for maximum safety of the sportsman during combat. Further research is required to confirm some of the conclusions, the limitations of which are due to the number and quality of the selected studies.

Open access

Tereza Nováková and Irena Čechovská

Summary

The text deals with neurophysiological and kinesiological developmental principles associated with the early development of young children as the fundamental prerequisites for physical education in the aquatic environment. Swimming in infancy and early childhood using the developmental principles and understanding of individual variability represent enormous potential to create a positive attitude of the child to exercise in aquatic environments. We believe that the experience with these basic tasks can play a key role in future exercise habits and swimming literacy of the individual. Parents attending infant swimming courses led by an instructor acquire practical skills and deeper insight into principles of their child's motor learning. All activities in the aquatic environment at an early age should allow transfer of child’s experiences to preswimming education and result in full swimming literacy.

Open access

Nikolas Nagy, Miroslav Holienka, Matej Babic, Jakub Michálek and Egon Kunzmann

Summary

The aim of this research was to make reference to the difference in heart rate values (HR) of soccer players in small-sided games (SSG) with various content focus. We assumed that the aim at the content in small-sided games would significantly affect the HR values of participating soccer players. The research group was comprised of players (n = 6) of the soccer club FK DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda (U15) at the age of 14 ± 0.7 years. The HR values were evaluated on the basis of collected data, which we obtained using sport testers and special software POLAR TEAM2. In order to find out the statistical significance of the difference in HR was used the One-Way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 %. We found out that by the change of the small-sided game’s content focus, the internal reaction of players’ organism to training load was at different level. In the SSG3, with the emphasis on the improvement of individual’s final offensive game activity – shooting, was recorded the highest achieved HRavg value of the monitored players (181.83 ±7.11 beats.min−1). This form of the SSG was the most intense. However, there were no significant differences in HR values among the individual forms of the SSG. Our recommendation is to employ in the systematic training process small forms of small-sided games with various content focus, because by the means of it we can adequately prepare the players for the match load itself.

Open access

Koutchouk Sidi Mohamed, Kerroum Mohamed, Sebbane Mohammed, Djamel Mokrani and Adel Belkadi

Summary

The objective of the study is to design a specialized training program in modern weighting methods for under-21 soccer players to develop muscular strength and to identify the effect of the training program on weighting exercises on some physiological variables (some aerobic and anaerobic abilities such as VO2max heartbeat and backstage). Researchers in this study that weight training for soccer players will have a clear impact on both the development of muscle capacity and improve some functional abilities. The experimental method was used to design two samples, a experimental sample and a control sample of under-21 soccer players who were selected by a team of Mustaganem teams. Each sample consisted of 18 players. The experimental sample was applied to the weight and control program. For four months. The study showed that the experimental sample achieved a significant increase in muscle strength measurements as well as some physiological variables in all measured tests compared to the control sample. This is the result of the proposed training program applied to the experimental sample.

Open access

Philippe Crisp

Summary

Numerous academic and practitioner research has examined the role of Higher Education Institutions (HEI) in the development of sport coaches in the UK (e.g. Crisp 2018; Stoszkowski and Collins 2018). However, whilst most fields related to coach development have significant bodies of work underpinning them, there is a dearth of information related to best practice within the context of disability sport coaching. Given that both coach learning in the HEI context and disability sports coaching are significant areas worthy of further exploration, this work investigates how learning can be developed through disability sport coaching in the HEI context. The aims of this study were to gather the perceptions, thoughts, and experiences of ten student-coaches enrolled on an HEI coaching programme who were completing a year long placement module that included sessions for participants with disabilities. Data were collected through two focus group meetings with the student-coaches and the submission of learning journals. Inductive analysis showed that coaching disability groups facilitated learning through generating knowledge from practice through a process of reflection, higher order thinking, and meta-cognition. This suggests that using disability coaching can be a useful tool for HEIs to use in terms of challenging student-coach practice and education.

Open access

Reguig Madani, Mohammed Zerf and SBA Bouabdellah

Summary

In 2001 Algerian Governmental created Sport High School (HSA). Its main mission is education, training and development of young talents by providing all the conditions to serve their healthy sports path. Firstly, by intensifying their daily sports as school-based health education program designed to improve their physical status relates to their healthy lifestyle. Disclosed by evaluation tool design to detect their physical abilities as well as their longitudinal followings. Used in present as evaluation scale to inspect imprudence related to the objectives of Algerian public schools (HPA). For proposing this comparative study test 1 000 High School student, 800 boys and 200 girls for academic years 2017 – 2018. The evaluation focused on measuring anthropometric parameters - age, weight, height and BMI as well as physical qualities - speed (30 m), the explosive force vertical (VJ), explosive force of the arms (medicine ball throw 3 kg (MB), flexibility trunk (FT)), endurance abdominal muscles (maximum of <4 sit-ups > in one minute (EAM) and aerobic endurance (20m shuttle test (VO2max)). Controlled by rating scales produced by Iaiche Rezoug. Based on the scale provided by this latter, our results proclaims the generalization of perspectives implemented in Algerian Sport High School as school-based physical health education program designed to reduce the consequences of overweight on health-related to physical performance. Estimated by rating scales produced by Iaiche Rezoug, which could serve as a model database refining the impact of the two Algerian educational systems, as an approach suggesting a clear direction for the development of adequate programs for the larger populations of Algerian scholars.

Open access

Przemysław Dębski, Ewelina Białas and Rafał Gnat

Abstract

Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a well-known and popular therapy. Its growing popularity is based on high effectiveness and availability. However, there is a lack of agreement about which parameters should be used to optimize the effects of the therapy. The purpose of this review is to critically select and assess current literature and ascertain the values of the follow­ing parameters: (1) therapy duration, (2) volume of applied pressure, (3) speed and (4) frequency of roll, (5) type of roller, (6) the number of treatment applications during one session, (7) the duration of intervals between applications that yield the best results in terms of soft tissue.

The authors launched their research in May 2018. The search strategy included the electronic databases EBSCOhost and PubMed. The following inclusion criteria were assessed:

- English language, high quality manuscripts (evaluation in PEDro scale)

- at least one of the groups using the foam roller, tennis ball or the stick to fascial release

- basic parameters of therapy described.A total 55 articles met the inclusion criteria. Patients can usually withstand a maximum tolerable pressure for 30-120 seconds, repeated 1-3 times, separated by 30 seconds of rest. The intensity of a single rolling movement should be moderate, and the movement should last about 3 seconds. Keeping the roller on particularly sensitive areas is recommended to release tension and enhance blood perfusion.Currently, there is no consensus on an optimal FR programme. However, there is a tendency to use SMR tools with a physiol­ogy-based method to enhance therapeutic efficiency.

Open access

Lucas de Lucena de Simões, Eline Autran de Lima, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos, Tafnes Oliveira, Elenilson Maximino Bernardo, Luana Olegário, Erika Rabelo Fortes Siqueira and Matheus Santos de Sousa Fernandes

Abstract

Study aim: To verify the relationship between different durations of regular practice of physical activity in aspects related to the anthropometric profile and hepatic function of patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Material and methods: 125 patients (aged 55.2 ± 10.4 years) participated in the study. Clinical data were obtained through medical records available at the Pernambuco Liver Institute. Physical activity levels were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form to classify the patients according to the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Results: Significant differences were found in GGT 141 (28-378 U/L) and HDL 39 (27-56 mg/dL) respectively in insuffi­ciently active and physically active groups, AST 71 (26-268 U/L), ALT 83 (36-452 U/L), GGT 78 (3-532 U/L), alkaline phos­phatase 74 (47-302 mg/dL) and total bilirubin 0.7 (0.1-2.8 mg/dL) in insufficiently active and very physically active groups. Anthropometric data showed significant differences in chest (p < 0.01), abdomen (p < 0.02) and waist measurement (p < 0.01) between insufficiently active and very physically active groups.

Conclusion: Physical activity, when practiced regularly for more than 300 minutes per week, can improve the clinical and an­thropometric profile in patients infected with HCV.

Open access

Sema Can and Ayda Karaca

Abstract

Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine smartphone-using university students’ musculoskeletal system pain complaints, duration of smartphone and computer usage, participation in moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), and prolonged sitting time.

Material and methods: This study was conducted on Hitit University students (n = 387; 206 female, 181 male) in the province of Çorum. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Physical Activity Assessment Ques­tionnaire (PAAQ) (sports/exercise activities section), and a personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and the t-test were used to determine differences between groups. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables.

Results: It was observed that half of the participants with musculoskeletal system pain complaints (54.5%) feel the pain in all four areas (neck, shoulder, upper and lower back). There was no statistically significant relationship between physical activity intensity and pain complaint (p > 0.05). The students with musculoskeletal pain complaints spend more time on the smartphone and computer than students who do not have pain complaints (p < 0.05). During electronic device usage, the students who are in the low-intensity physical activity category spend more time sitting down than students in the moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity category (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In consequence, information can be provided about the importance of reducing sitting time during smartphone use and increasing the duration of moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) so awareness can be raised on the issue among university students.

Open access

Ahmad Fahim Zulkifli

Summary

Study aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of astudent-centered approach and alternative assessments on students’ learning domains (i.e., cognitive, affective, psychomotor) during health education learning sessions.

Material and methods: Four groups totaling 65 mixed-gender undergraduate students (ages 20–25) of physical and health education participated in this study of alternative assessments’ effects on students’ learning once per week (3 hours) in their respective classrooms for seven weeks at a central Malaysia university. Students’ knowledge on the lesson contents was gathered using a series of quizzes. Students’ self-efficacy was assessed using the modified Traits Sport-Confidence Inventory (TSCI), and students’ levels of physical activity were assessed using a mobile pedometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-tests to evaluate pre/post differences.

Results: The students’ perception and knowledge on health education improve across interventions with greater efficacy (7.64± 0.97) at the post-test compared to the pre-test (7.30± 1.38). Students’ recorded improvement in step counts between week two and week five. A slight reduction during weeks six and seven may be due to the end of the semester and preparation for the final examinations.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that astudent-centered approach and alternative assessment of learning were effective to engage students with contents and developing whole learning domains within the classroom.