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Open access

Vlastimil Růžička

Abstract

Over the last several decades the traditional role of universities in their unique mission in education and research changed to include also the so-called third mission consisting in their active involvement in the socio-economic development of the society. Publicly available data from annual economic report of Czech public universities were analysed to demonstrate the universities´ ability to raise funding from off-budgetary sources which belongs to main characteristics of entrepreneurial university. Off-budgetary sources, where revenues for internal services prevailed, made in 2016 around 16 % of the total income of Czech public universities. The off-budgetary sources include in particular charges for accommodation and board, fees for entrance exam, tuition fees for students that exceed the standard length of studies by more than one year, and tuition fees for studies in a foreign language. The last fees make up to three quarters of all offbudgetary sources at universities that offer studies at medical faculties. The universities´ ability to execute the third role was due to limited availability of data accessed only partially by analysing revenues from knowledge transfer in supplementary activities that involve contractual research, income from licences, educational courses on demand, consultations and counselling. Contractual research in supplementary activities was the most important among the listed activities making up to 8 % of all off-budgetary sources revenues. In international comparison the Czech public universities raise about one half of revenues for R&D from entrepreneurial sources than EU-28 average and only one third compared to German universities. Revenues from license agreements are low making around 0.1 % of all revenues for R&D.

Open access

Zdeněk Kučera and Tomáš Vondrák

Abstract

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the dynamically evolving research fields on the global scale. The world production of publication associated with the AI field increased by a third over the four-year period 2013–2017. Even less research intensive countries as Iran, Turkey, India and Indonesia appear to increase the share of the AI topics in their publication output. In the Czech Republic the fraction of publications in the AI field increased by approximately 10 % over this period. It makes the lowest increase within the EU/EEA. The field normalized citation index of the Czech publications in the year 2016 was above the world average but it is deeply below the top countries USA, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Singapore, and Norway.

The extent of international cooperation in AI is generally below the world average. The Czech Republic falls into the group of less cooperating countries. The countries exhibiting the highest growth in AI research are underrepresented in the Czech cooperation portfolio. The fraction of Czech publications in AI coauthored by foreign authors is lower than the national average. It indicates a lower international collaboration in comparison with other research fields. CR falls also in the group of countries less engaged in the international cooperation. The Czech international collaboration misses the countries exhibiting the most vigorous R&D in AI. The international collaboration adds to the quality of the research. The Czech publications originating from the international collaboration are cited above the country average for the AI field. It is even more significant in the collaboration with researchers from the top countries in the AI R&D.

The patent activity in the AI field has grown significantly in recent years. There is a marked increase of patent applications having inventors/applicants from more than one country. It indicates that the applied R&D in AI has a more international character in comparison with other technology fields. A high intensity of collaboration in the authorship of patent applications is within language and geographically neighbouring countries and with countries having a highly internationalized R&D system. Multinational corporations involved in international innovation networks contribute also to the international cooperation. ICT corporations like IBM, Google, or Microsoft which often employ foreign researchers have a dominant role in international cooperation.

The R&D of the Czech enterprises is relatively closed to the international cooperation. Domestic enterprises in AI use foreign employees in a small extent. The domestic enterprises even do not tap into the pool of intellectual property authored by the Czech researchers. The majority of patents with participation of Czech inventors is registered by foreign corporations.

Open access

Otakar Fojt and Aleš Vlk

Abstract

The purpose of our contribution is to discuss shortcomings of purely descriptive quantitative evaluation of research policies – based either on inputs (public investment, number of researchers), or outputs (publications, number of patents). To give an example we compare selected indicators across Visegrad countries in the period between 2006 and 2015. We conclude that both quantitative and qualitative perspectives as well as societal and political context should be taken into account when the performance of any R&D system and the impact of public investments into a public R&D sector are scrutinized.

Open access

Vladislav Čadil

Abstract

Behavioural additionality is defined as permanent (long-term) changes in all spheres of behaviour and general capabilities of supported companies as a consequence of public support received. It closely relates to the output additionality because it creates prerequisites for improvement of firms economic performance. This paper aims to show the concrete application of this concept in the evaluation of programmes in the Czech Republic on the example of the TIP programme. It also tries to outline certain aspects that cannot be captured on the one hand when looking only at input and output additionalities, but on the other hand they enable better understanding of these additionality types. The methodology used for assessing behavioural additionality is based on a qualitative approach, a mix of a questionnaire survey and structured interviews. The evaluation confirmed the applicability of the behavioural additionality concept for programmes evaluation in the Czech Republic and showed that both the short-term and long-term effects of the R&D support in the areas of cooperation, R&D activities and firms strategies have already occurred.

Open access

Nataliya Mukan, Margaryta Noskova and Iryna Zinchuk

Abstract

The article reveals the results of the content analysis of Estonian legislative and normative documents, which define the state educational policy regarding the development of both professional and digital competences of school teachers at the current stage of the education reforming of the country. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the main features of Estonian legislative framework for professional development of public school teachers, especially in the field of digital competence formation. Teachers’ professional development has been studied by foreign and Ukrainian scientists: L. Chance, A. Hollingsworth, N. Klokar, N. Mukan, V. Oliynyk, D. Ross, E. Villegas-Reimers etc. The paper, in particular, focuses on the provisions of the National Strategy for Continuing Education 2014–2020, the Professional Standards of the Teacher; The Law on Basic Schools and Secondary Schools, the State Program of Competent and Motivated Teachers and School Principals, which regulate goals, content and expected result of the development of the teacher’s digital competence and its importance for the development of education and the state. The analytical references and results of the research of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation, dedicated to Estonian education, have been summarized. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis), and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing) methods. The analysis has been carried out through the prism of expediency of borrowing the Estonian positive experience for the educational system of Ukraine, in particular, in the field of public school teachers professional development. The research results have been presented.

Open access

Olha Yuzyk, Iryna Mazaikina, Halyna Bilanych and Mariia Yuzyk

Abstract

The articles considers European standards for education quality assessment. The effectiveness of the network of national agencies, in particular ENQA, which includes 40 agencies from 20 countries is described. The European association for quality assurance in education comparing with Ukrainian is described. The ways of introduction of high-quality education in higher educational institutions (hereinafter the HEI) in order to increase the importance of getting education in our state are offered. The key responsibility of the National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance (hereinafter the NAHEQA) in Ukraine according to the internal and external evaluation of the quality of higher education institutions is justified. The Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education” and the Law “On Higher Education and Science in Poland” concerning the powers, composition and main tasks of the NAHEQA and the Polish Accreditation Commission (hereinafter the PAC) are analyzed in the comparative aspect. A great attention is paid to the composition of the National Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance in Ukraine. The criteria for evaluating the programs, subdivisions, and fields of study in Polish higher educational institutions from the highest rating to “no evaluation from 01.11.2011” which are set on the web-portal are described. You should choose the course with the base of all the Polish higher educational institutions. It is estimated that the following indicators such as missions and strategies of the university development and educational standards; teachers qualifications and other people who train students; the interaction with the environment of the socio-economic situation in the learning process; the effectiveness of the internal system of education quality assurance; internationalization of the educational process; accreditation and certificates of institutions, national and international; the infrastructure which is used for implementing learning outcomes, etc during the evaluation of the programs of Polish higher educational institutions are taken into account. The authors of the article give recommendations on ensuring the quality of national higher education as essential for trust in it and European recognition.

Open access

Oksana Hubina

Abstract

The article presents the results of the study on the professional and pedagogical aspect of developing open education in higher education institutions in the UK. It is established that as a result of society informatization, the new requirements for training of future specialists arise. Solving requirements means to create an improved open (computer-based) environment with advanced computer facilities of educational institutions, laboratories, libraries; updating methodological support, pedagogical technologies and the content of distance and e-learning based on the use of ICT; introducing new forms and methods of organizing the education process; introducing open educational systems; using the method of forming information and communication competences in scientific and pedagogical workers, methods for evaluating the quality of open electronic systems and free access to open educational resources; as well as to study the condition, trends and monitoring of open education development. The principles of constructing professional training in British universities are presented, namely, the consolidation of educational courses into blocks (general, special and professional and pedagogical), the use of innovative technologies (distance, credit, modular, personalized, mutual, tutoring, massive open educational courses (MOOC)) and innovative forms of education such as eco-education, media education, peace-education (education in the spirit of peace) and intercultural education. It is proved that the main advantages of open education are accessibility, flexibility, parallelism, modularity, efficiency, internationalization and co-ordination, which make it possible for everyone to receive education. The use of elements of open education provides not only access to digital content, but also helps to improve the system of education management and monitor its quality.

Open access

Sergiy Yashchuk

Abstract

The article analyzes the stages of organizing the education process in social schools in France based on the example of Regional Institute of Social Work Aquitaine, Bordeaux. It is found that the Institute pays specific attention to the basic courses: professionalization and methodology; social and solidarity economy; professional approach to service; social connections and exclusion; legal approaches; project development and management; sociology of education; human development; psychopedagogy of animation project; family law; social protection and social security; research methodology; legal approach to information management for the EU countries; humour and pedagogy; oral communication and education; anthropology of education; education and philosophy, the views on the education process: family education; mental disability: history and current events; self-study and lifelong learning; psychology of education: theoretical principles, methods, educational and social practices. It is clarified that the main characteristic of social careers in France, regardless of specialization, is the ability to provide permissive and appropriate mediation between the individual, family and society, state and social structures; to act as a partner, linking the personality and society, children and adults, family and society. It is justified that there is no distinction between “social worker” and “social educator” in France. French specialists consider social work to be “personal support services for people”, which is based on certain sciences (law, psychology, sociology) and accumulated experience of practical sociopsychological, health-improving, rehabilitational and therapeutic support of the individual.

Open access

Nina Zhuravska

Abstract

The article analyzes methodological approaches to constructing a didactic model of specialist courses in Ukraine and France. It is found that the main elements of higher education are knowledge, modes of activity (abilities, skills), creative search activities and emotional education. It is specified that knowledge is a system of determined acquired concepts, patterns of phenomena and objects of the objective world. It is clarified that the system of knowledge gained from specialist courses contains the following types of knowledge: scientific (scientific data on which a particular course is based); scientific and historical (the evolution of concepts, ideas and ways of their discovery); methodological (a set of knowledge about science methodology); philosophical, logical and interdisciplinary (the reflection of scientific connections in educational information); evaluative (the description of the individual’s relation to the world and his/her system of values). It is stated that the modes of activity are viewed as general scientific, professional and specialist abilities and skills and in terms of psychology – sensory, motor, sensory and motor, intellectual ones. Intellectual skills and abilities include note taking, working with reference literature, writing abstracts and reviews, preparing simple projects (maps, diagrams). It is noted that creative search activities imply a readiness to find solutions to new problems. They also involve applying knowledge and skills in non-standard conditions, considering a new problem under normal conditions, combining well-known modes of activity independently and applying a fundamentally new way of solving the problem. It is highlighted that emotional education is characterized by evaluative knowledge and norms of relation to the world. It is proved that the difference between academic courses and science lies in the fact that it includes only the main principles of one or another field of knowledge within a particular science available for students to acquire.

Open access

Olena Moshenets

Abstract

The article analyzes the goals, objectives and content of professional training for international communication specialists in the UK universities. It is found that professional training of international communication specialists aims to prepare a competent and competitive expert under the rapidly changing requirements of British society and the international labour market. They are expected to have the relevant basic professional knowledge, practical abilities and skills (leadership and managerial skills, high-level political and information culture, active social position, high responsibility, willingness and capacity for self-study). It is indicated that British degree programmes mainly seek to train specialists based on interdisciplinary and competency-based principles, focusing on learning outcomes. Upon the successful completion of the degree programme, the graduate must possess not only theoretical knowledge but also special and general abilities and skills, which are necessary for effective functioning in various contexts of public life. It is specified that in the context of competency-based approach, the UK higher education aims to develop future specialists’ ability to independently acquire new knowledge throughout life, identify and realize their own intellectual and creative potential, strive for self-determination, social integration and self-development, which creates relevant conditions for acquiring high-level professional competency in general and nurture professional culture in particular. It is concluded that British degree programmes in international communication consist of compulsory and optional modules. Each university is entitled to choose the number and content of compulsory and optional modules in accordance with the directions of scientific research of the department and scientific interests of students and lecturers.