The so-called Buchanan report, commissioned by the Irish government and published in May 1969, comprised a set of proposals for regional industrial development in Ireland over the period 1966–86. The main thrust of the report was the concentration of the great bulk of new industrial employment creation in Dublin and eight proposed ‘growth centres’. The plan provided for the creation of powerful planning authorities to oversee development in the regions. The government rejected these proposals and opted instead to continue with the existing policy of widespread dispersal of new industry. While meeting with initial success, this policy proved unsustainable in the long term. The paper reviews the implications of the Buchanan report experience for the regional planning process in Ireland, arguing that failure to learn from this experience served to undermine the National Spatial Strategy, with a similar fate likely for the forthcoming National Planning Framework.
In the fifty years since the publication of the Buchanan report, Regional Studies in Ireland, Ireland has transitioned from a rural to an urban society. Although a number of spatial plans have been introduced at regional and local levels, the growth of over 1.5 million people in the urban population has occurred in the absence of any strong national-level direction of spatial or settlement policy. This paper examines the nature of urbanisation in the half-century since 1966, by looking at the development of the urban hierarchy of cities and towns. Significant long-term changes in both the structure and the spatial expression of the urban hierarchy are identified, on the basis of which urbanisation is characterised as having been deconcentrated and decentralised. The paper identifies some implications of the observed shifts for contemporary policy concerns, and in particular the 2018 National Planning Framework.
The evolution of spatial planning in Ireland, and more widely, has been a complex process in which many narratives have been explored at different times. In 2018 the government published the National Planning Framework (NPF) to guide and support the achievement of a challenging and potentially transformative development strategy for Ireland 2040. The NPF is grounded in a vision that sets out to be disruptive of what has become embedded as the status quo in political, administrative and planning decision-making. While it is a very innovative addition to the portfolio of government policies and strategies, it is not the first time that radical visions have been proposed. This paper reviews previous visions and plans for regional development that have been proposed over the last seventy-five years, and critically compares and contrasts the approaches represented by the National Spatial Strategy (2002–20) and the NPF (2018–40), including the subsequent draft regional spatial and economic strategies. The implications of the population projections and the proposed settlement patterns for the achievement of the NPF objective of effective regional development, which is expressed as a regional parity target, are closely examined.
This article contains information on the activities of a terrorist organisation — the Islamic State (ISIS) — in Europe. Organisational structures of this association, as well as principles of its functioning and preparation of terrorist attacks have been described. The paper also presents a quantitative list of the attacks carried out in Europe in recent years. An important element of the article is the description of actions taken against ISIS by individual European countries.
Gambling activity is a multifaceted phenomenon. Gambling is a special field of business. The government authorities ascribe the right to a monopoly of this area of economic activity. The randomness and financial size of gambling foster the development of the grey market. In addition to the economic effect, the moral dimension of this type of activity is an extremely important aspect. The Customs and Tax Control Service supervises the functioning of the gambling market in Poland.
Subject and purpose of work: The article is devoted to the issue of gambling. The aim of the research was to present the activities of the Customs and Tax Control Service in the field of legal and illegal gambling.
Materials and methods: The study methods used were literature review, legal acts, documents of the Ministry of Finance, statistic data, using quantitive and systems analysis.
Results: As a result, the directions of the Customs and Tax Control Service activities were identified in the field of gambling market control.
Conclusions: The activities of Customs and Tax Control Service bring results in fighting illegal gambling, protecting players, and raising social awareness of the dangers of using services of illegal gaming operators.
One of the goals of evaluation is applying the management based on value, in order to redirect the performances of different activities of the enterprise meaning when, how, and how much to extend the businesses that bring value, and which of the operational measures have the biggest potential to raise the value. The evaluation is based on balanced sheet, balance of accounts, and then the economic balance that includes both the patrimony of the economic entity in economic values and the turnover that the entity is able to achieve. The determination of the adjusted net asset is based on the achieved economic balance. The adjusted net asset is considered the most important patrimonial value because it takes into consideration the incident of various factors on the real value of the assets and on the liabilities or debts of the entity. The evaluation of the economic entity is essential in many moments of the existence of an enterprise, as acquisition, divesture, stock holdings, stock issued, issued shared, stock sales, absorptions, fusions, etc. The specialized literature mentions as essential patrimonial values: the active asset, the adjusted active asset, the active asset reduction. Taking into consideration only their own funds and equity as resource of financing the patrimonial assets of the economic entity, we can affirm that these values correspond to the seller’ view that considers that the economic entity is terminating its activity and his main concern is only the possible selling prices.