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László Fosztó

Abstract

After the fall of the socialist bloc some authors celebrated the advent of Romani nationalism, emphasising its Eastern European roots and its potential force to foster emancipation among an ethnic minority oppressed for so long. There is another perspective on the community organisation among the Roma from actors who had much less sympathy towards collective claims on behalf of the ‘Gypsies’. Recently published documents from the archive of the secret police testify that Gypsy nationalism (“naționalism țigănesc”) was systematically denounced in Romania. Roma leaders suspected of being its proponents were persecuted during the late period of the Ceaușescu era. This article is an attempt to interpret a contested category in the context of late socialist Romania.

Open access

Marian Viorel Anăstăsoaie

Abstract

This paper addresses one of the first translations of a US anthropological monograph into Romanian. Its author, John V. Murra (1916–2006), born into a Russian-Jewish family in Odessa, grew up in Romania, where he studied and became involved in the Communist movement before his departure for Chicago in 1934. His 1956 PhD thesis in anthropology at University of Chicago on the Inka state was a first step towards turning Murra into an influential figure in the field of Andean anthropology. His sister Ata Iosifescu lived in Romania and translated his PhD thesis into Romanian, published in 1987 as Civilizaţie inca: organizarea economică a statului incaş(Inka Civilization: the Economic Organization of the Inka State). Based on their correspondence kept at the National Anthropological Archives at the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC), I propose to reconstruct this translation’s story: the context, the constraints and the process of translation itself. I am also addressing the question of the book’s reception in Romania.

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Steven G. Randall

Abstract

This discussion looks back at socialist Romania and the collapse of the Ceauşescu regime. It suggests that Romania, like all states, socialist, social-democratic and neoliberal are confronted by the same world systemic capitalism and that all states use a mixture of policies involving both capitalist and socialist, democratic and authoritarian features in the attempt to avoid the hazards and to gain the advantages of a global system dominated by capitalist accumulation. Using a diversity of assets and hampered by limitations inherited historically, some will fail and some will succeed as state projects. Cold War era analysis will not be useful as a way to evaluate or predict winners or losers. Likewise, the failure of Communist Romania as a state system could not have been predicted either by its authoritarian or by its socialist policy features.

Open access

Sam Beck

Abstract

This is a biographical account of my work in Romania and the influence it had on my research that followed. I focus on the impact that my almost five years in Romania had on the framework and orientation of my anthropological practice that I employed in the United States. I suggest that anthropologists have a moral imperative we must carry out when we choose to conduct research among the most vulnerable in society. In doing so, we must also come to understand the conditions that have made them vulnerable in the first place (Nader 1969). I assert here that as anthropologists of the twenty-first century we no longer may stay on the sidelines, but we must engage our work as allies with the vulnerable, supporting them in their self-identified struggles for dignity, liberation, and sustainability as part of a unified global effort. This entails the transformation of participant observation into a participatory research approach.

Open access

Iulian Oană

Abstract

Studies based on bibliometric records have introduced the idea of ‘rhythmicity’ when it comes to the publication of research articles. However, the main approach of this particular topic was to analyze journal specific data on rates of manuscript and review submissions. This study takes another path, by analyzing aspects of publication rhythmicity based not on individual, attribute data, but taking into account the fact that publication of research results and the efforts leading to a certain manuscript are often collective endeavors. Thus, co-authorship ego networks are interpreted through the theoretical lenses of ‘social time’ (for temporality), and ‘homophily’ and ‘preferential attachment’ (for network characteristics). For this article, the same data analyzed by M.-G. Hâncean and M. Perc in their 2016 article, Homophily in coauthorship networks of East European sociologists, were used. The data was based on Web of Science bibliometric records for three populations of academic sociologists, from Poland, Romania and Slovenia, and their co-authors. The purpose was to see if the publishing rhythm of an author (i.e., ego) is influenced by the publishing rhythm of her co-authors (i.e., alters) and by the structural characteristics of her ego-network. Rhythmicity was measured as the sum of standard deviations from the mean for the number of articles published between 2006 and 2016, resulting in a score which characterizes egos and alters as constant or irregular in their publishing activity. Results suggest that the structural features of the co-authorship networks can give us certain insights for the rhythmicity of publications. Mainly, structural features of network size, density and node betweenness explain more the variation of egos’ constancy or irregularity in (non)publication than the rhythmicity of their co-authors.

Open access

Marcello Romani-Dias, Edson Sadao Iizuka, Elisa Rodrigues Alves Larroudé and Aline Dos Santos Barbosa

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to identify, organize and analyze the international scientific production on social enterprises (SE). It presents the results of a bibliometric study combined with a systematic literature analysis. We analyzed 204 academic articles on the subject, from four different sources: (i) articles published in journals with high impact factors; (ii) most cited articles as per Google Scholar; (iii) articles addressing topics related to SE; and (iv) articles from the Social Enterprise Journal, specialized in the subject. Results point to remarkable recent growth in the field of SE, both theoretically and empirically. In addition, this study presents the main pieces of work, countries, institutions, research questions, methodology and results found in the SE literature. Studies have concentrated around six main categories: (1) understanding SE, through different approaches, concepts and models; (2) governance and relationships with stakeholders; (3) attempts to increase practical references and samples within the field; (4) organizational learning, structure and critical factors for success and failure of SE; (5) metrics, indicators and social impact generated by SE; and (6) legislation of different countries and how it relates to SE.

Open access

Bianca Elena Mihăilă

Abstract

The aim of this article is to contribute to the discussion about whether the scientific impact of an academic researcher (measured through bibliometrics indices as Hirsch score, citation scores or quantitative data about publications) can be accounted for by the presence of co-authors and the characteristics of the personal networks they are embedded in. With my study, I intend to demonstrate that there is statistical evidence between international co-authorship, measured through the number and the characteristics of international co-authors and the scientific impact of the researcher. Recent studies using bibliometrics and scientometrics approach shows that papers published with international co-authors may result in a higher citation rate than the ones written in a purely national manner (with national co-authors) (Glanzel & Schubert, 2001; Schmoch & Schubert, 2008). In the literature that addresses these issues, the main focus is put on international co-authorship, but my opinion is that the concept has undergone a series of methodological changes. I address these changes as a trend towards a transnational perspective. I explored the personal networks of university researchers, from three academic communities in the field of sociology. I analyzed the data using hierarchical regression models. This article is based on secondary data analysis starting from the data Hâncean used in 2016 (Hâncean & Perc, 2016). The data provided attribute and relational data for the focal nodes and their corresponding alters from Web of Science platform. Given the theoretical framework proposed by previous research (Adams, 2012; Hâncean & Perc, 2014; Glanzel & Schubert, 2004), I expected the scientific impact of an author to be positively influenced by the impact of the personal network he is embedded in. After running the analysis, the presence of transnational co-authors has a moderate impact on the citation distribution, especially for the Romania case. The biggest impact on the citation distribution, for all academic communities I included in the analysis, are the number of publications and the average number of co-authors’ citations. The description and the exploration of the data in all three communities of academic sociologists (Romania, Poland and Slovenia) will be used later in order to show new ways in which knowledge is transferred through the lens of a transnational perspective.

Open access

Steven Sampson

Abstract

This paper, a revised presentation at a panel on academic exchanges at the 2018 Conference of the Society for Romanian Studies, discusses the challenges of researchers studying small, insignificant places, and particularly when our specific knowledge pushes us to become generalists. Since every country has a ‘La noi ca la nimeni’ (‘Nobody has it the way we have it’) discourse, how do we make Romania interesting?

Open access

Adelina-Alexandra Stoica

Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is to measure the impact that homophily, structural characteristics of the networks, number of citations of the alters and their Hirsch score have on the number of citations of an ego. I have chosen co-authorship networks as a subject of research because they have a great influence on knowledge and on the diffusion of ideas. The studied populations are represented by full-time academics affiliated to sociology departments in Romania, Poland and Slovenia. Ego-network analysis was used as research design. The data was analyzed using linear hierarchical regression. For all three populations the average number of citations of the alter has a considerable positive impact on the number of citations of the ego. Conversely, the Hirsch score of the alter has a negative impact on the number of citations of the ego. The data analyzed in this article claims that the assumptions about the positive impact of alter citations, network size and the betweenness score on the number of the authors citations are supported empirically.

Open access

Marian Viorel Anăstăsoaie, László Fosztó and Iuliu Rațiu