In order to demonstrate an aspect in which the novel is relatable to the canon of absurdism and enrich the view of dimensions in which it functions, the purpose of the following article is a reading of Flann O’Brien’s The Third Policeman in relation to the Absurd as an ontological category of existentialism and absurdism. Firstly, some assumptions already made on account of the novel are introduced. Secondly, the relevant and chosen characteristics of the Absurd are summarized in relation to Kierkegaard’s and Camus’s conceptions of the Absurd. Then, the novel is interpreted in relation to the insufficiency of human knowledge and rational thought in terms of achieving comprehension transcending existence. Lastly, the novel is interpreted in relation to the narrator’s fear of death, with death as an element transcending existence and adding to its irrationality. Overall, the way in which the novel depicts a specific contraction resulting in the Absurd is illustrated.
This paper deals with a psychoanalytic interpretation of the titular story. It is part of the first volume in the Hungarian anthology series entitled Night Zoo – An Anthology of Women’s Sexuality (‘Éjszakai Állatkert – Antológia a női szexualitásról’). The analysis focuses on the story Night Zoo (‘Éjszakai Állatkert’) written by Zsófia Bán according to Freud’s personality theory. The theory regards our psyche as divided into three parts. The id is the instinctual part of our mind that represents our sexual and hidden desires, the superego contains the moral conscience and the norms, and the ego mediates between the wishes of the id and the rules of the superego. The chosen short story seems to revolve around unfulfilled love between two people. But after critical reading, it is obvious that this is not a love story of two people, but the relationship lies between the narrator and her unfulfilled desires. There is an immense conflict between instincts and social expectations. The narrator’s id has a desire; she just wants to be happy and have harmony in her life. But the superego does not allow her to fulfill the desire. The ego is therefore instrumental in deciding what the correct decision is.
This research study focuses on a social semiotic approach to Ismail Kadare’s novel The Palace of Dreams. The novel was chosen for study and analysis because it is considered to be one of the Kadare’s most important works. The Palace of Dreams reflects many aspects of Albanian society including governmental abuse of power during the period of the communist regime. The analysis of literary space in this novel focuses on locating the literary discourse in the text and the spaces of the text that produce discourse with their shape, presence and extension. The purpose of this research study is to see how and in what way meaning is conveyed through spaces, and also how and in what shape it serves the comprehensive ideas of the novel. Our purpose is not only to highlight the values of this novel, but rather enable to understand the great importance that space plays in people’s work environments and in their private lives (the characters), and how crucial the space is for their lives and destinies.
The present study focuses on the tales of Hungarian-Roma writer Magda Szécsi, which were studied using the content analysis method. This study constitutes part of a larger research project that aims to provide methodological guidance for the integration of Roma pupils in schools that use Hungarian as the language of instruction. The types of function of primary socialization and the types of intra- and extra-familial interaction are illustrated via examples in the study. The motifs of happiness, anxiety, anger and misery in the tales of Magda Szécsi’s two books, Madarak aranyhegedűn (Birds on the Golden Violin ) and Az aranyhalas lószem tükre (Mirror of the Horse Eye with the Gold Fish ), are analysed in light of the aforementioned aspects. I applied the research method of qualitative content analysis and explained the forms of happiness and unhappiness in the books. There are many examples in the tales under discussion of the conditions of happiness and the reasons for misery in Roma culture. The three components determining the characters’ happiness or unhappiness are faith in God, idolatry and Gypsy law.
As a metaphysical poet, Richard Crashaw (1613-1649) is recognized for his stylistic experimentation and deep religious faith. In the course of his short life, he became a fellow at Cambridge, was later introduced to Queen Henrietta Marie, Charles I’s wife, in France after his exile during the Interregnum, converted to Catholicism from Anglicanism and was highly influenced by Baroque poetry and the martyrdom of St. Teresa of Avila in his style and themes. He is a poet with a “most holy, humble and genuine soul” and in the last six years of his life, which coincided with a period of great crisis in both personal and professional spheres, he worked intensively on the religious phase of his literary career (Shepherd 1914, p. 1). He reflected his devotion to St. Teresa and to God in his religious poems. Within this context, this study analyses Crashaw’s two Teresian poems, “A Hymn to the Name and Honour of the Admirable Saint Teresa” and “The Flaming Heart” featuring the themes of the quest for divine love and unification with the divine along with Crashaw’s divergence from other metaphysical poets, his affection for the European style(s), and his religious views concerning both his country and other countries in Europe.
This paper focuses on Mrs Gaskell’s treatment of the erring girl in Lizzie Leigh (1850) and Ruth (1853) and the new elements that she introduces which brand the treatment as different. Contrary to her Victorian contemporaries, Mrs Gaskell stresses the role of religion, the use of biblical quotations on the treatment of the sinner, and the role of motherhood. The paper also shows how Mrs Gaskell makes the illegitimate child an incentive towards repentance and hope of reclamation. Through her motherly love and devotion to her child, a mother rises and grows in character and faith. Moreover, the paper demonstrates Mrs Gaskell’s condemnation of the falsity of the traditional taxonomy of “illegitimate” or “fallen”, and her assertion that social value lies in the inherent properties within the individual. It also highlights how she makes forgiveness for the sinner a duty which society has to fulfil, and maintains that if the charitable and the kind are forced “to lie” because of the existing social and moral attitudes, then it is imperative that they should be changed so that “lies” are unnecessary. It concludes by investigating the stormy reception and the controversy it created among readers.
The development of critical thinking is conditioned by the action of many factors. To highlight this fact, I have focused on the opportunities offered by textbooks, teachers and learning activities for the development of the critical thinking of primary school pupils in Kosovo. The study begins from the idea that recognizing these opportunities opens the way for further improvement. The study was conducted with the participation of teachers and students. The textbooks of the primary school in Kosovo were also studied. The study has descriptive and mixed nature. His descriptive character is related to the description of the possibilities for the critical thinking development in the primary school, and the mixed character of methodology is related to the mixed nature of the collected data: textual facts, teachers’ opinions, learning practice / activities. The design of this research was conducted by combining three main methods: content analysis, interview and observation, by comparing each-other’s results of content analysis (tabs), teacher’s interviews, and observation in classes. This was done by analyzing the content of 24 textbooks (Literary anthology 1-5, Albanian Language 1-5, Civic Education 3-5, History 5, Art 1-5 and Music 1-5), 336 teachers were also interviewed and 336 lessons were observed. To collect data from the textbooks, an internationally recognized instrument for critical thinking has been modified, which is then adapted for the construction of an interview guide as well as for observing classroom activities. The study’s findings are interesting and important: it is noted that: the texts contain considerable opportunities for developing critical thinking, teachers have positive attitudes and classroom activities have useful elements that contribute to the development of critical thinking. Also, there are some differences from text to text, from teacher to teacher, and from one lesson to another. The study conclusions are descriptive and show which texts, opinions, and activities develop more critical thinking and which ones need further review and improvement. We come to some useful conclusions for both curriculum compilers (authors and publishers), their implementers, and inspectors.
Rasa Pauliene, Danuta Diskiene and Emilija Matuzeviciute
Culture plays a fundamental role in peoples’ perception of the world thus perception of the world and culture has a major impact on one another. Consequently, leadership cannot be effective if diversity of cultures, likewise values, habits, communication style, history, language, is not considered. Leadership is always associated with change, however, under continuously changing conditions of the competitive environment, managers may not always be initiators of positive changes, and employees themselves often know best what could facilitate their work and make it more successful. Therefore, leadership at multicultural organisations has started to be seen as the ability of an organisation as a whole, rather than an exceptional feature of a few top managers. The purpose of the study is to identify complex approach on multicultural team management and leadership. In order to reach the purpose of the study, qualitative research method and in-depth interviewing has been chosen. Questions and statements in the questionnaire reflect multicultural aspect: as people have different values, they are more culturally linked. It leads to differentiation of values and this can cause misunderstandings while communicating with co-workers from other cultures. Moreover, miscommunication can be caused by misperception, misinterpretation and misevaluation.
Ohanaka Blessing Ijeoma and Adeleke Ismaila Oladipo
An individual experiences boredom when an activity is neither entertaining nor conducive. Academic boredom and its negative influences include dissatisfaction and low arousal in school activities, depression, high school dropout, lack of academic goal orientation, abusive behaviours as well as poor academic performances among students. The study sought to investigate the efficacy of Systematic desensitization on academic boredom among students in Edo State Secondary Schools. The research used quasi experimental design adopting the pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group experiment. The population for the study consisted of One thousand, five hundred and eighty-two (I,582) SS2 students from Seven (7) public schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The sample for the study was made up of two intact classes comprising of 91 (Ninety-one) SS2 students. The instruments used for the study is Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS), developed by Farmer and Sunberg, adapted from Obisanya with a test retest reliability co-efficient of 0.792. The findings of this study showed that Systematic desensitization was effective in reducing academic boredom. It was also more effective than the control group (non-attention). It is therefore recommended that reciprocal inhibition can be used to desensitize the students by counsellors. In the classroom, the teacher should note individual differences, engage students in classroom activities, use real life situations and also make learning interesting.
This study investigated the relationship between English teachers’ epistemological beliefs and moral dilemma. In doing so, 70 English teachers were selected from different language institutes and were included in the research sample. The instruments used to collect the data included the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and the Defining Issues Test (DIT). The collected data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation method and descriptive statistics in SPSS software. The findings revealed that the participants believed that knowledge improves with experience over time, and that there was also an innate ability to acquire knowledge. They also displayed conflicting views about the simplicity/complexity of knowledge. The analysis of different stages of moral development in the views of the English teachers showed an ascending trend in the moral development from stage 2 (the focus on personal interests) through stage 6 (appeal to intuitive moral principles/ideals). Besides, significant differences were found among different stages of moral development as assessed by the EFL teachers and also in terms of the impact of different moral reasoning schemas on the participants when making judgments about different moral dilemmas.