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Laurent André, Christomir Christov, Arnault Lassin and Mohamed Azaroual

Abstract

In this study we evaluated new mixing (θ and ψ) Pitzer parameters, and developed models for solution behavior and solid liquid equilibria for the following mixed systems: 1) KCl-AlCl3-H2O, 2) KCl-FeCl3-H2O, 3) KCl-CrCl3-H2O, 4) MgCl2-AlCl3-H2O, 5) MgCl2-FeCl3-H2O, 6) MgCl2-CrCl3-H2O, 7) CaCl2-AlCl3-H2O, 8) CaCl2-FeCl3-H2O, and 9) CaCl2-CrCl3-H2O at 25°C. The solubility modeling approach, implemented to the Pitzer specific interaction equations is employed. The values of the binary parameters for the binary sub-systems needed here to parameterize models for mixed systems are taken from our previous studies. Mixing solution parameters are evaluated in this study using activity (when available) and solubility data. Following an approach in our previous modeling studies on M(III) chloride and sulfate systems, in this work we accept that complex Al(III), Cr(III), and Fe(III) aqueous species do not exist in solutions. We test the new models by comparing model predictions with experimental data (activity data for unsaturated solutions and solubility data in ternary systems). The agreement between model predictions and experimental data is very good. Combining present parameterization, with our M(III) models developed previously we fully complete our at 25°C model for the 8th component system Na-K-Mg-Ca-Al(III)-Cr(III)-Fe(III)-Cl-H2O. The resulting model calculates solubilities and solution activities to high solution concentration within experimental uncertainty. Limitations of the model due to data insufficiencies are discussed. The resulting parameterization was developed for the Pitzer formalism based PHREEQC database.

Open access

Mohamed Bencheikh, Abdelmajid Maghnouj, Jaouad Tajmouati and Abdessamad Didi

Abstract

This study aims to investigate and evaluate the secondary photons characterizations under flattening filter (FF) for high radiotherapy quality in terms of fluence, energy fluence, energy fluence distribution, spectral distribution and angular spread distribution of secondary photons, which are mainly coming from primary collimator originated in the whole Linac head. However, the flattening filter illuminates the photons of low energy. After this component, the secondary photons of low energy are coming from flattening filter and secondary collimators that contaminate the dosimetry for deep tumor treatment.

Fluence profile, energy profile and angular spread of secondary photons decreased with FF volume reduction percent but energy distribution and spectral distribution kept almost constant with FF volume reduction. The FF volume reduction allows reducing the secondary photons emergent from FF in number and in energy and it permits to increase the radiotherapy efficiency by decreasing the photons contamination when the cancer is treating.

Open access

Ibtissem Boulacel, Brahim Harkati, Radia Ayad, Ibrahim Demirtas, Hocine Laouer and Salah Akkal

Abstract

The focus of this paper was to assess the phytochemical composition, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the crude extracts of the aerial parts of Ferula lutea. Four new compounds were isolated from this genus, and their structures were primarily established by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D spectroscopic techniques. Total phenolics and flavonoids containing in ethyl acetate (AcOEt) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts were quantified [199.1-184.02 mg gallic acid equivalent / g of dry weight], flavonoids [70.24-65.95 mg quercetin / g dry weight]. DDPH scavenging and phosphomolybdenum methods were used to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed a significant antioxidant activity of the two aerial parts. Correlation analysis between the DPPH values and those for TAC indicates the possibility of the two models for evaluating antioxidants power from medicinal plants. Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), AcOEt and n-BuOH extracts were screened against two gram-negative [Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Pseudo aeruginosa (P.aer)] and two gram-positive [Staphylococcus aureus (S.aur) and Bacillus (Bacil.)] bacteria using disc diffusion method. The results indicate a good inhibition of CH2Cl2 and EtAct extracts on the growth of (Bacil. and E.coli). Furthermore n-but extract showed a significant inhibitory effect only against E.coli.

Open access

Imen Laib, Fairouz Boubrik and Malika Barkat

Abstract

The main objectives of this work are to optimize the extraction parameters, to test the antioxidant activity of Aloe Vera extract and to study the impact of this extract on deteriorating molds of Algerian variety of wheat (CIRTA). The extraction was optimized by central composite design. Determination of the polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins was performed by using colorimetric assays. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds were performed by RPHPLC-UV method. The antioxidant activity was tested by three methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and CUPRAC (Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity), the antifungal activity of Aloe Vera extract on isolated strains from durum wheat were tested by dilution in a solid medium method. The optimum of total phenolic got was1,044 x 104 µg GAE/g of dry extract. The extract is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The analysis of phenolic compounds of Aloe Vera by RP-HPLC-UV revealed seven phenolic compounds. Strong antioxidant activity was obtained for Aloe Vera extract. Purification and microscopic study of isolated strains gave the possibility of identifying four strains: Alternaria spp1, Alternaria spp2, Penicillium spp, and Aspergillus spp. the antifungal potential of Aloe Veravaries according to the fungal genera and the concentrations of extract used.

Open access

Zeinab Fardi and Payvand Taherparvar

Abstract

Permanent and temporary implantation of I-125 brachytherapy sources has become an official method for the treatment of different cancers. In this technique, it is essential to determine dose distribution around the brachytherapy source to choose the optimal treatment plan. In this study, the dosimetric parameters for a new interstitial brachytherapy source I-125 (IrSeed-125) were calculated with GATE/GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. Dose rate constant, radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function were calculated inside a water phantom (based on the recommendations of TG-43U1 protocol), and inside several tissue phantoms around the IrSeed-125 capsule. Acquired results were compared with MCNP simulation and experimental data. The dose rate constant of IrSeed-125 in the water phantom was about 1.038 cGy·h−1U−1 that shows good consistency with the experimental data. The radial dose function at 0.5, 0.9, 1.8, 3 and 7 cm radial distances were obtained as 1.095, 1.019, 0.826, 0.605, and 0.188, respectively. The results of the IrSeed-125 is not only in good agreement with those calculated by other simulation with MCNP code but also are closer to the experimental results. Discrepancies in the estimation of dose around IrSeed-125 capsule in the muscle and fat tissue phantoms are greater than the breast and lung phantoms in comparison with the water phantom. Results show that GATE/GEANT4 Monte Carlo code produces accurate results for dosimetric parameters of the IrSeed-125 LDR brachytherapy source with choosing the appropriate physics list. There are some differences in the dose calculation in the tissue phantoms in comparison with water phantom, especially in long distances from the source center, which may cause errors in the estimation of dose around brachytherapy sources that are not taken account by the TG43-U1 formalism.

Open access

Irina R. Iotova and Dobromir D. Enchev

Abstract

The reactivity of 1,2-alkadienephosphonates in nucleophilic addition reactions has been investigated.

Open access

Zine El Abidine Ababsa, Mohamed Tahar Derouiche, Kamel Medjroubi and Salah Akkal

Abstract

Tetraclinis articulata (Thuya of Barbary), endemic to North Africa, is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases [1]. We investigated the antidiarrhoel properties of the butanol extract of Tetraclinis articulata (BETA) in male and female Swiss albino mice to support its traditional use. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the plant extract was evaluated in a model of castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in mice and compared to loperamide (a reference inhibitor of diarrhoea). The effect of (BETA) on gastrointestinal motility was determined by the oral administration of charcoal and Castrol oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling).The (BETA) showed remarkable antidiarrhoeal activity significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility and castor oil induced enteropolysis (68,18%), more than to the inhibition achieved in loperamide treated mice (60,16%). The second aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-ulcerative activity of The (BETA), it produced percent protection of control colitis by 77, 40%, while the standard drug (aspirin) produced 81,39% protection. We conclude that Tetraclinis articulata extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents and antidiarrhoeal drugs.

Open access

Saber Boutellaa, Amar Zellagui, Mehmet Öztürk, Chawki Bensouici, Özge Tokul Ölmez, Mouna Menakh and Mehmet Emin Duru

Abstract

In this study, phenolic compounds from Crithmum maritimum L. n-butanol soluble fraction were quantified and identified spectrophotometrically and by using HPLC-DAD technics. They equally investigated for their antioxidant potential utilizing six in vitro assays: DPPH, ABTS•+, O2 •−, Bleaching of β-carotene in linoleic acid, CUPRAC and Ferric reducing power. High amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids were recorded: 161.57± 0.479 μg GAeq.mg−1 and 31.56± 0.291 μg Qeq.mg−1 respectively. Nine compounds among them hydroxicinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, coumarins and flavonoids were identified. Chlorogenic acid known for their various pharmacological properties was detected as major compound of the extract. Rutin, vanillin, trans-2-hydroxycinnamic acid, ellagic acid, ferrulic acid, 6,7 dihydroxy coumarin, methyl 1,4 benzoquinone and trans-cinnamic acid were also detected. The extract was found to exhibit strong antioxidant capacities in all systems. Based on these results, it is right to conclude the n-butanol extract is promising source of natural antioxidants.

Open access

Ramaa Lingaiah, Md Abbas Ali, Ummay Kulsum, Muhtasim Aziz Muneem, Karthick Raj Mani, Sharif Ahmed, Md. Shakilur Rahman and M Salahuddin

Abstract

Aim: To estimate the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) using different modes (axial, helical, slow, KV-CBCT & 4D-CT) of computed tomography (CT) in pulmonary tumors.

Materials & Methods: We have retrospectively included ten previously treated case of carcinoma of primary lung or metastatic lung using Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in this study. All the patients underwent 4 modes of CT scan Axial, Helical, Slow & 4D-CT using GE discovery 16 Slice PET-CT scanner and daily KV-CBCT for the daily treatment verification. For standardization, all the patients underwent different modes of scan using 2.5 mm slice thickness, 16 detectors rows and field of view of 400mm. Slow CT was performed using axial mode scan by increasing the CT tube rotation time (typically 3 – 4 sec.) as per the breathing period of the patients. 4D-CT scans were performed and the entire respiratory cycle was divided into ten phases. Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP), Minimum Intensity Projections (MinIP) and Average Intensity Projections (AvIP) were derived from the 10 phases. GTV volumes were delineated for all the patients in all the scanning modes (GTVAX - Axial, GTVHL - Helical, GTVSL – Slow, GTVMIP -4DCT and GTVCB – KV-CBCT) in the Eclipse treatment planning system version 11.0 (M/S Varian Medical System, USA). GTV volumes were measured, documented and compared with the different modes of CT scans.

Results: The mean ± standard deviation (range) for MIP, slow, axial, helical & CBCT were 36.5 ± 40.5 (2.29 – 87.0), 35.38 ± 39.52 (2.1 – 82), 31.95 ± 37.29 (1.32 – 66.9), 28.98 ± 33.36 (1.01 – 65.9) & 37.16 ± 42.23 (2.29 – 92). Overall underestimation of helical scan and axial scan compared to MIP is 21% and 12.5%. CBCT and slow CT volume has a good correlation with the MIP volume.

Conclusion: For SBRT in lung tumors better to avoid axial and helical scan for target delineation. MIP is a still a golden standard for the ITV delineation, but in the absence of 4DCT scanner, Slow CT and KV-CBCT data may be considered for ITV delineation with caution.