Anton ten Klooster
A Study on Thomas Aquinas’ Secunda Secundae
An Essay on the Binding of Isaac from the Perspective of Thomas Aquinas
Rudi te Velde
This essay explores Thomas’ thoughts about the virtue of obedience (based on STh II-II, q.104), which is particularly valued as a link between the moral virtues and the theological virtue of charity (love of God). Obedience generates in the human person the moral disposition required for all the other virtues, a disposition which consists in the readiness of the will to submit itself to the rule of God’s will. Reflecting on the question whether one should be obedient to God in every respect, Thomas is confronted with an objection pointing to the story of how God commands Abraham to kill his innocent son, which is prohibited by natural law. I use the scarce but intriguing remarks Thomas made in response to this objection to propose a meaningful interpretation of obedience as a religious virtue, essentially different from its distorted imitation which consists in an immediate identification of one’s own will with the presumed divine will.
Anna Sapir Abulafia
Aristoteles in De Academische Preken Van Thomas Van Aquino
Het begrip kwaad in de Westerse cultuur
In this article I discuss the concept of evil. I begin by showing that the concept of evil is not religiously neutral. Here, I will discuss the Western view of evil, influenced by Judaism and Christianity. Subsequently, I discuss Leibniz’s classic distinction between three forms of evil - metaphysical, physical and moral - and introduce the categories of natural and non-moral evil. Next, I show that one and the same event may be good in one respect and evil in another. Thus, the passion of Christ is a physical evil when we look at the suffering undergone, a moral evil when we look at the act of those who inflict it on Him, and a moral good when we look at the act of Christ: He gives His life for His friends. This I call the ambiguity of evil. Finally, I discuss two views on the origin of evil: dualism and the view of evil as a privation of a good that should be there, and argue in favour of the second.
This article provides an outline of the network of universities where Catalan is taught outside the Catalan-speaking territories. This network is coordinated and managed by the Institut Ramon Llull, the public body created by the governments of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands and the city of Barcelona with the mission to promote the Catalan language and culture abroad. It consists of 145 universities in 28 countries, of which 87 universities receive funding from the IRL. The article describes the main characteristics and activities of this network, defines the value it creates for the various stakeholders that participate in it, and outlines its main objectives and projects for the immediate future.
One of the consequences of the 1939 exile was the widespread emergence, or re-emergence, of cultural community centres, periodicals and magazines, brief treatises and books that gave priority to local events over outside influences. Xavier Benguerel, Domènec Guansé, C. A. Jordana, Joan Oliver and Francesc Trabal, who formed the Chile group, held translation as their weapon of choice in the political and cultural struggle. Here, we look at the most remarkable achievements, collective strategies and ways of thinking about language and translation.
Carles Riba (1893–1959) wrote several articles in which he showed his commitment to literature and reflected on the role of literature in society, as “Socrates in front of the judges” (1926), “Politicians and Intellectuals” (1927), “Literature and Rescuing Groups” (1938) and the presentations of the Revista de Catalunya (1939 and 1955). Many of these texts were written in turbulent political contexts: the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera (1923–1929), the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and the post-war period under Franco (1939–1959). The aim of this paper is to study these articles and analyse Riba’s view of writers and intellectuals.