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D. Rani and V. Mishra

Abstract

In this paper, an effectual and new modification in Laplace Adomian decomposition method based on Bernstein polynomials is proposed to find the solution of nonlinear Volterra integral and integro-differential equations. The performance and capability of the proposed idea is endorsed by comparing the exact and approximate solutions for three different examples on Volterra integral, integro-differential equations of the first and second kinds. The results shown through tables and figures demonstrate the accuracy of our method. It is concluded here that the non orthogonal polynomials can also be used for Laplace Adomian decomposition method. In addition, convergence analysis of the modified technique is also presented.

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H. P. Singh and S. M. Gorey

Abstract

Gupta et al (2002) suggested an optional randomized response model under the assumption that the mean of the scrambling variable S is ‘unity’ [i.e. µs = 1]. This assumption limits the use of Gupta et al’s (2002) randomized response model. Keeping this in view we have suggested a modified optional randomized response model which can be used in practice without any supposition and restriction over the mean (µs) of the scrambling variables S. It has been shown that the estimator of the mean of the stigmatized variable based on the proposed optional randomized response sampling is more efficient than the Eicchorn and Hayre (1983) procedure and Gupta et al’s (2002) optional randomized technique when the mean of the scrambling S is larger than unity [i.e. µs > 1]. A numerical illustration is given in support of the present study.

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B. Prashanth, K. Nagendra Naik and K. R. Rajanna

Abstract

In this paper we present some results using eigen values of signed graph. This precipitate to find the determinant of signed graph using the number of vertices.

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B. Meftah and A. Souahi

Abstract

Some new Ostrowski’s inequalities for functions whose n-th derivatives are h-convex are established.

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Tony Milligan

Abstract

Novels and thought experiments can be pathways to different kinds of knowledge. We may, however, be hard pressed to say exactly what can be learned from novels but not from thought experiments. Headway on this matter can be made by spelling out their respective conditions for epistemic failure. Thought experiments fail in their epistemic role when they neither yield propositional knowledge nor contribute to an argument. They are largely in the business of ‘knowing that’. Novels, on the other hand can be an epistemic success by yielding ‘knowledge how’. They can help us to improve our competences.

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Basil Lourié

Abstract

Theodore the Studite resolved the logical problem posed by the second Iconoclasm in an explicitly paraconsistent way, when he applied to Jesus the definition of the human hypostasis while stating that there is no human hypostasis in Jesus. Methodologically he was following, albeit without knowing, Eulogius of Alexandria. He, in turn, was apparently followed by Photius, but in a confused manner.

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Margaret Boone Rappaport and Christopher Corbally

Abstract

The authors present an evolutionary model for the biological emergence of religious capacity as an advanced neurocognitive trait. Using their model for the stages leading to the evolutionary emergence of religious capacity in Homo sapiens, they analyze the mechanisms that can fail, leading to unbelief (atheism or agnosticism). The analysis identifies some, but not all types of atheists and agnostics, so they turn their question around and, using the same evolutionary model, ask what keeps religion going. Why does its development not fail in one social group after another, worldwide? Their final analysis searches for reasons in important evolutionary changes in the senses of hearing, vision, and general sensitivity on the hominin line, which together interact with both intellectual and emotional brain networks to achieve, often in human groups, variously altered states of consciousness, especially a numinous state enabled in part by a brain organ, the precuneus. An inability to experience the numinous, consider it important, or believe in its supernatural nature, may cleave the human population into those with belief and those with unbelief.

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Lluis Oviedo

Abstract

Free will is a very hot issue in several theoretical settings, but less in theology, or at least not as much as use to be in former times, when the discussions on sinfulness, grace and freedom were igniting a long season of controversies, especially in the Reformation time. Even in ecumenical dialogue apparently free will does not play a great role, since the reached consensus seems quite peaceful and agreement dominates over discussion. However, some theological insights, especially Karl Rahner reflections, are still worthy to consider and possibly theological anthropology should pay more attention to the current debate and its consequences for the way we understand human nature and its relationship with God.

Open access

Riccardo Campa

Abstract

This article provides a detailed description of robotic weapons and unmanned systems currently used by the U.S. Military and its allies, and an ethical assessment of their actual or potential use on the battlefield. Firstly, trough a review of scientific literature, reports, and newspaper articles, a catalogue of ethical problems related to military robotics is compiled. Secondly, possible solutions for these problems are offered, by relying also on analytic tools provided by the new field of roboethics. Finally, the article explores possible future developments of military robotics and present six reasons why a war between humans and automata is unlikely to happen in the 21st century.