Climate change becomes a widely acknowledged and inevitable global challenge of 21st century. For developing countries like Ethiopia, it intensifies existing challenges of ensuring sustainable development. This study examined factors affecting climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies by taking in Protection Motivation Theory. The study draws on mixed research approach in order to assess the subjective understanding about climate change threats and identify the factors determining responses to climate change. While qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews, quantitative information was collected using semi structured survey from 296 randomly selected farmers from different agro-ecologies. Qualitative data was dominantly analyzed using content analysis while descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze quantitative data. Almost all respondents (97%) perceived that climate change is occurring and threatening their wellbeing. Dwindling precipitation, increasing temperature and occurrence of human and animal disease were perceived to represent climate change. From nationally initiated strategies, farmers were found to largely practice soil and water conservation and agricultural intensification, which they perceived less costly and compatible to their level of expertise. The result of binary logistic regression revealed that perceived severity of climate change, perceived susceptibility to climate change threat, perceived own ability to respond, response efficacy and cost of practices predicted farmers motivation to practice climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. Thus, building resilient system should go beyond sensitizing climate response mechanisms. Rural development and climate change adaptation policies should focus on human capital development and economic empowerment which would enable farmers pursue context specific adaptation and mitigation strategies thereby maintain sustainable livelihood.
This article approaches the topic of the emerging adulthood with young people in Romania, as well as the beginning of the first work experience. The main aim is to identify the factors of a successful transition from school to independent life. The article examines the social status and the issues the young people in Romania face with regard to the transition from education to employment. The data type longitudinal panel study refers to the cohort of young people born in 1994-1995, the generation which graduated from the 12th or 13th class in 2012. We answer the question „Which are the factors that determine the first work experience for Romanian young people and what does this look like?” Half of the young people have work experience - 50.1%, with 25.2% working at the time they filled in the questionnaires, two years after graduation. Employment is explained to an extent of 1% by gender and area of residence, 4% by factors of social exclusion and 1% by factors related to negative life events. All these factors explain the variance of 6% in the employment of young people. Linear regression analysis (hierarchical) showed that social inclusion factors have the greatest effect on employment, with 4% of employment variance explained by social exclusion factors, while the influence of the demographic variables, factors of social exclusion and factors related to negative life events explain 6% of the youth employment variance.
The success of higher education graduates’ transition to the labor market is analyzed in this paper. A series of representative factors which influence the success rate on the labor market were analyzed through an exhaustive case study among graduates from West University of Timisoara. The results show a high level of satisfaction amongst graduates, despite the high level (over 40%) of total incongruence (vertical and horizontal) between the degree’s field and the actual workplace. We can also assert that the graduates’ insertion in the labor market is a real success, since most of them are able to get a job in less than 6 months from graduation (58.5%), even more do so 12 months post-graduation (83.9%).
The paper examines the link between organizational climate and work engagement among the non-teaching staff of a Nigerian University. Participants consisted of 229 (F=46.7%; Mean age =45.7) non-teaching staff selected using stratified random sampling technique from non-teaching staff of the institution. Participants completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Organizational Climate Measure that were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test analysis. Results revealed that organizational climate is related to work engagement among registry staff. It also showed that female employees were more engaged with their work than their male counterparts. The paper recommends the design of appropriate strategies and interventions to ensure that employees feel more engaged in their work-roles.
Since over a decade, there are ongoing debates about the relationships between the scientific field of consumer research and the political field of consumer policy. To date, there exist theoretical overviews of the international state of the art in consumer research and its historical developments regarding topics, and theoretical and methodological advancements. There also exist few empirical studies which approached this field through content analysis of scientific articles, case studies or literature reviews. Nonetheless, prior research has yet neglected consumer researchers themselves and, above all, their stances toward consumer policy. To fill this gap, this article seeks to enhance knowledge about consumer researchers by presenting empirical results of a survey among Austrian consumer researchers. In contrast with previous research, this article relates its empirical findings to better understand how consumer research can become a more integrated and institutionalized research area, in Austria and elsewhere. As the results indicate, there are some commonalities in Austrian consumer research which may serve as a fertile ground for a closer integration of the field and which could enhance cooperation between the scientific and the political field. Yet, as this article shows, there also exist some obstacles, which may hinder such efforts. It concludes with some propositions for consumer research as a scientific field and discusses obstacles and prospects of a future collaboration between this scientific field and consumer policy. In doing so, this article seeks to contribute to the debate about a so-called “evidence-based” consumer policy suggesting that consumer policy can draw on a wide array of scientific perspectives and should not restrict itself to behavioural insights alone, a current trend in some European countries and in the European Commission. As will be shown, the Austrian case is furthermore informative to better understand internal and external (political) efforts to foster cooperation within consumer research and the relationship between consumer research and consumer policy.
A graph G = (V;E) is word-representable if there is a word w over the alphabet V such that x and y alternate in w if and only if the edge (x; y) is in G. It is known  that all 3-colourable graphs are word-representable, while among those with a higher chromatic number some are word-representable while others are not.
There has been some recent research on the word-representability of polyomino triangulations. Akrobotu et al.  showed that a triangulation of a convex polyomino is word-representable if and only if it is 3-colourable; and Glen and Kitaev  extended this result to the case of a rectangular polyomino triangulation when a single domino tile is allowed.
It was shown in  that a near-triangulation is 3-colourable if and only if it is internally even. This paper provides a much shorter and more elegant proof of this fact, and also shows that near-triangulations are in fact a generalization of the polyomino triangulations studied in  and , and so we generalize the results of these two papers, and solve all open problems stated in .
Permutations are frequently used in solving the genome rearrangement problem, whose goal is finding the shortest sequence of mutations transforming one genome into another. We introduce the Deletion-Insertion model (DI) to model small-scale mutations in species with linear chromosomes, such as humans. Applying one restriction to this model, we obtain the transposition model for genome rearrangement, which was shown to be NP-hard in . We use combinatorial reasoning and permutation statistics to develop a polynomial-time algorithm to approximate the minimum number of transpositions required in the transposition model and to analyze the sharpness of several bounds on transpositions between genomes.
This paper basically completes a project to enumerate permutations avoiding a triple T of 4-letter patterns, in the sense of classical pattern avoidance, for every T. There are 317 symmetry classes of such triples T and previous papers have enumerated avoiders for all but 14 of them. One of these 14 is conjectured not to have an algebraic generating function. Here, we find the generating function for each of the remaining 13, and it is algebraic in each case.
We consider a generalization of the problem of counting ternary words of a given length which was recently investigated by Koshy and Grimaldi . In particular, we use finite automata and ordinary generating functions in deriving a k-ary generalization. This approach allows us to obtain a general setting in which to study this problem over a k-ary language. The corresponding class of n-letter k-ary words is seen to be equinumerous with the closed walks of length n − 1 on the complete graph for k vertices as well as a restricted subset of colored square-and-domino tilings of the same length. A further polynomial extension of the k-ary case is introduced and its basic properties deduced. As a consequence, one obtains some apparently new binomial-type identities via a combinatorial argument.
A generalized (resp. p-ary) ballot sequence is a sequence over the set of non-negative integers (resp. integers less than p) where in any of its prefixes each positive integer i occurs at most as often as any integer less than i. We show that the Reected Gray Code order induces a cyclic 3-adjacent Gray code on both, the set of fixed length generalized ballot sequences and p-ary ballot sequences when p is even, that is, ordered list where consecutive sequences (regarding the list cyclically) differ in at most 3 adjacent positions. Non-trivial efficient generating algorithms for these ballot sequences, in lexicographic order and for the obtained Gray codes, are also presented.