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Open access

Anna Domosławska, Sławomir Zduńczyk and Tomasz Janowski

Abstract

Introduction: Significant improvement of sperm motility within one month effected by oral supplementation of selenium and vitamin E was described in four infertile male dogs which failed to conceive in their last three matings with different bitches.

Material and Methods: The dogs (a Golden Retriever, an English Cocker Spaniel, and two Tibetan Mastiffs) were supplemented daily with selenium (Se) (0.6 mg/kg organic Se yeast) and vitamin E (vit. E) (5 mg/kg) per os for 60 days. Semen was collected on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. The sperm concentration and motility parameters were evaluated by the CASA system, sperm morphology was explored by Diff-Quick staining, and live and dead spermatozoa were differentiated by eosin/nigrosin staining. The concentrations of Se and vit. E were measured in peripheral blood serum on semen collection days.

Results: Before administration, the concentrations of Se in blood plasma were low (86.0–165.0 μg/L). After 30 days of treatment there was an observable improvement in total and progressive sperm motility and kinematic parameters (VAP, VSK, VCL, ALH, BCF, and RAPID). The percentages of live and normal morphology sperm cells were also higher. There was also an observable increase in Se and vitamin E concentrations in blood serum. Bitches were successfully mated and delivered four to six puppies.

Conclusion: Supplementation with Se and vit. E improved rapid sperm motility and restored fertility in infertile dogs with low Se status.

Open access

Maciej Klockiewicz, Małgorzata Sobczak-Filipiak, Tadeusz Jakubowski and Ewa Długosz

Abstract

Introduction: Canine roundworm T. canis and T. leonina infections were investigated in experimentally infected farm mink (Neovison vison) to describe the pattern of pathological lesions in this paratenic host.

Material and Methods: Infections in mink developed following ingestion of embryonated eggs of either parasite or mice tissue infected with both parasite species.

Results: Comparative analysis of haematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides showed essential differences among the experimental groups. The lesions observed included eosinophil and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates of the intestinal wall and local lymph nodes, inflammation and haemorrhages in liver tissues, and interstitial inflammation and mineralisation of the kidneys and lungs. Larvae migrating through the minks’ bodies also caused particularly salient enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the spleen and inflammatory infiltrates of mononuclear cells in skeletal and heart muscles.

Conclusions: It is assumed that histopathological lesions appeared as a local and general host response to invasive L3 T. canis and T. leonina larvae migrating through the tissues of infected farm mink. Interestingly, mink infected with embryonated eggs had more pronounced lesions than animals infected with tissue larvae. Detailed histopathological examinations of parenchymal organs and striated muscles revealed lesions resembling those observed in other paratenic host species due to toxocarosis.

Open access

Maciej Klockiewicz, Tadeusz Jakubowski, Małgorzata Sobczak-Filipiak, Justyna Bartosik and Ewa Długosz

Abstract

Introduction: Farm mink (Neovison vison) can be naturally exposed to T. canis and T. leonina pathogens on the farm. If mink were hosts, it would imply some veterinary public health as well as animal welfare issues. For this reason, the aim of the study was to determine whether mink might be definitive or paratenic hosts of these parasites. Material and Methods: Four groups of mink were infected with both parasite species using larvated eggs or feed containing mouse tissue previously infected with the parasites. Following inoculation, the infections were monitored in vivo by faecal examination for 14 weeks p.i., and then western blotting and ELISA were performed. Results: Coprology did not reveal any canine roundworm eggs, neither were nematodes found in mink intestines during post mortem examination. The specific IgG antibodies recognising excretory/secretory (ES) antigens of both parasite species were identified in mink sera. Single T. leonina tissue larvae were found in digested organs. Conclusions: Our results confirm that farm mink may contribute both T. canis and T. leonina infections. It was proved that farm mink were not their definitive hosts, and therefore mink faeces need not be considered a source of canine roundworm eggs in any soil it fertilises. Nonetheless, as farm mink may be a paratenic host for both parasite species, this may have some impact on the health and welfare of infected animals.

Open access

Marta Szweda, Andrzej Rychlik, Izabella Babińska and Andrzej Pomianowski

Abstract

The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme catalyses the first stage of biosynthesis of prostanoids, proteins that are implicated in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes accompanied by inflammation, pain and fever. Overexpression of COX-2 was determined in tumour tissues, which suggests that this enzyme participates in oncogenesis. In this paper the topics discussed are mechanisms regulating COX-2 expression, COX isoforms, their role in the body and the oncogenic mechanisms triggered by the overexpression of COX-2, including inhibition of apoptosis, intensification of neoangiogenesis, increased metastatic capacity, and weakening of the immune system. The significance of and the mechanisms by which COX-2 participates in oncogenesis have been studied intensively in recent years. The results are highly promising, and they expand our understanding of the complex processes and changes at the molecular, cellular and tissue level that promote oncogenesis and cancer progression. Notwithstanding the knowledge already gleaned, many processes and mechanisms have not yet been elucidated in human medicine and, in particular, in veterinary medicine. Further research is required to develop effective tumour diagnostic methods and treatment procedures for humans and animals.

Open access

Alicja Stachura, Barbara Bojarojć-Nosowicz, Dariusz Kaczmarczyk and Ewa Kaczmarczyk

Abstract

Introduction: Numerous mutations in the bovine tumour necrosis factor receptor type two (TNF-RII) gene have been identified, but their biological consequences remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphism in the analysed loci of the bovine TNF-RII gene is linked with the size of cell subpopulations naturally infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) which serve important immune functions in the host.

Material and Methods: Samples originated from 78 cows. Polymorphisms in the studied gene were determined by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. BLV infection was diagnosed by the immunofluorescence (IMF) technique and nested PCR. Cell subpopulations were immunophenotyped with IMF.

Results: Similar and non-significant differences in the average percentages of TNFα+ IgM+TNFα+ and CD11b+TNFα+ cells infected with BLV were noted in individuals with various genotypes in the polymorphic sites g.-1646T > G and g.16534T > C of the TNF-RII gene, and significant differences in the percentages of these subpopulations were observed between selected microsatellite genotypes (g.16512CA(n)).

Conclusion: STR polymorphism and the number of CA dinucleotide repeats in intron 1 of the TNF-RII gene influence the frequency of TNF+, CD11b+TNF+, and IgM+TNF+ subpopulations naturally infected with BLV. Polymorphism in the gene’s other two sites do not affect the size of these cell subpopulations.

Open access

Güneri Atalan, Gültekin Atalan, Hanifi Erol, Muharrem Erol, Ayhan Atasever, Zafer Doğan, Vehbi Güneş, M. Kaan Yönez and Ihsan Keleş

Abstract

Introduction: Clinical doses of anaesthetic agents were administered to rabbits and effects on the brain, heart, and liver were investigated biochemically and histopathologically.

Material and Methods: The rabbits were randomly divided into three main groups (16 rabbits each) and each group into study (n = 8) and control (n = 8) groups. All study group rabbits received 3 mg/kg of midazolam (M) intramuscularly. Group 1.1 (M) received nothing further, group 2.1 (MK) also received 25 mg/kg of ketamine, and group 3.1 (MKI) besides ketamine was also given 2% isoflurane to induce anaesthesia for 30 min. NaCl solution in the same volume as midazolam and ketamine was injected into the controls.

Results: In clinical evaluation significant differences were detected in respiratory and heart rates. In blood gas analysis the PO2 and PCO2 values showed statistical differences in anaesthesia intervals. Significant biochemical values changes were recorded in creatine kinase-Mb, glucose, and total protein. Histopathological liver examinations revealed higher total apoptotic and normal cell numbers in the MK than in the M and MKI groups. Apoptotic cell numbers were statistically significant in M and MK groups.

Conclusion: Anaesthetic agents may increase programmed apoptosis. The MKI anaesthetics combination was found to cause less cell destruction in general than the other study groups. It was indicated that MKI was the safer anaesthetic combination in rabbits.

Open access

Aleksandar Dodovski, Zagorka Popova and Vladimir Savić

Abstract

Avian avulavirus type 1 (AAvV-1) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Even though belonging to a single serotype, there is great genetic variability between these viruses. On the basis of the available complete fusion (F) gene and whole genome sequences and using the genotype classification system, AAvV-1 viruses are divided in two major groups: class I and class II. Class I viruses are predominantly avirulent viruses and majority of the isolations come from waterfowl and domestic poultry from live bird markets in USA and China although isolations from wild birds are reported globally. In our study we used classical, molecular and phylogenetic tools to characterize an AAvV-1 isolated from a mute swan in Macedonia. Based on the complete F gene sequence, we have concluded that the virus designated as AAvV-1/mute swan/Macedonia/546/2012 (KP123431) belongs to the class I of AAvV-1 with an avirulent cleavage site motif 112ERQER*L117. The virus could not be assigned to any of the four currently existing subgenotypes (1a, 1b, 1c or 1d) of the single genotype 1 of class I viruses. Two distant viruses, isolated from goose in Alaska in 1991 and from goose in Ohio in 1987, shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity of the complete F gene with the isolate in our study: 92.7% and 92.8%, respectively. This is the first report of isolation of class I AAvV-1 in Southeastern Europe. The asymptomatic nature and the underreporting of sequences from the class I viruses impede the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of this group of viruses.

Open access

Ning Ma, Xin Li, Hong-bin Wang, Li Gao and Jian-hua Xiao

Abstract

Introduction: Tiletamine-xylazine-tramadol (XFM) has few side effects and can provide good sedation and analgesia. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate trigeminal neuralgia. The study aimed to investigate the effects of XFM and its specific antagonist on AMPK in different regions of the brain.

Material and Methods: A model of XFM in the rat was established. A total of 72 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three equally sized groups: XFM anaesthesia (M group), antagonist (W group), and XFM with antagonist interactive groups (MW group). Eighteen SD rats were in the control group and were injected intraperitoneally with saline (C group). The rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem were immediately separated, in order to detect AMPKα mRNA expression by quantitative PCR.

Results: XFM was able to increase the mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in all brain regions, and the antagonist caused the opposite effect, although the effects of XFM could not be completely reversed in some areas.

Conclusion: XFM can influence the expression of AMPK in the central nervous system of the rat, which can provide a reference for the future development of anaesthetics for animals.

Open access

Ewelina Pyzik, Agnieszka Marek, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Łukasz S. Jarosz and Izabella Jagiełło-Podębska

Abstract

Introduction: The study sought to characterise antimicrobial resistance among coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species recovered from broiler chickens and turkeys in Poland including the presence of 12 antimicrobial resistance genes and five classical genes of staphylococcal enterotoxins.

Material and Methods: A panel of 11 antimicrobial disks evaluated the phenotypic sensitivity of the tested strains to antibiotics. Five multiplex PCR assays were performed using primer pairs for specific detection of antibiotic resistance genes and staphylococcal enterotoxin A to E genes.

Results: Selected antimicrobial agent susceptibility testing revealed 100% of such in in vitro conditions to cefoxitin among strains of Staphylococcus sciuri and S. chromogenes. The blaZ (for ß-lactam) and mecA (for methicillin resistance) genes were in 58.3% and 27.5% of strains, respectively. Among genes resistant to tetracyclines, tetK was most frequent. Fewer (CNS) strains showed genes resistant to macrolides, lincosamides, and florfenicol/chloramphenicol. Multiplex PCR for classical enterotoxins (A-E) detected the see gene in two S. hominis strains, while the seb gene producing enterotoxin B was found in one strain of S. epidermidis. Conclusion: CNS strains of Staphylococcus isolated from poultry were either phenotypically or genotypically multidrug resistant. Testing for the presence of the five classical enterotoxin genes showed that CNS strains, as in the case of S. aureus strains, can be a source of food intoxications.

Open access

Minoru Yatu, Mitsuhiro Sato, Jin Kobayashi, Toshihiro Ichijyo, Hiroshi Satoh, Toshinori Oikawa and Shigeru Sato

Abstract

Introduction: Breeding profiles at the periparturient stage in red foxes which mated naturally or were subjected to artificial insemination were retrospectively surveyed using 130 vixens during their reproductive seasons of 2012–2017 in Japan.

Material and Methods: Natural mating vixens were encouraged a maximum of three times with the same male, while artificial insemination was conducted using frozen-thawed semen with the bovine semen extender as a diluent.

Results: With natural mating, conception rates after one, two, and three copulations were 55.8%, 68.0%, and 85.7%, respectively, showing a significant difference between the rates for one and three copulations. Conception rates with artificial insemination were 82.4%. Mean gestation periods were between 52.1 and 53.3 days in all groups. Mean litter sizes were 3.7–4.3 cubs with natural mating, and 4.4 cubs with artificial insemination. Although some sporadic and inconsistent changes in litter sizes were noted between primiparous and multiparous groups, these were of doubtful clinical importance.

Conclusion: This is the first report from Japan concerning basic breeding events of red fox vixens in captivity.