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Anna Pietrzak and Aleksandra Tokarz

Abstract

Achievement motivation is a distinguishing disposition in elite and non-elite athletes. Implicit theories and competence perception influence the types of achievement goals and constitute separate achievement motivation dispositions. The context of sport promotes various achievement goals and implicit theories about athletic competence. For this reason, scientific research should focus on the intrapersonal profiles of achievement motivation dispositions (achievement goals, implicit theories, and competence perception) instead of specifying only one of them. This study explores differences between elite and non-elite athletes in terms of intrapersonal profiles of achievement motivation dispositions. 54 elite and 50 non-elite track and field athletes took part in the study. The results suggest that athletes tend to perceive their competence accurately. Cluster analysis of the studied dispositions was conducted. The clusters present sets of achievement dispositions that vary in intensity. Moreover, the results present trends of the differences between elite and non-elite athletes in two of the three clusters obtained in the study.

Open access

Lukáš Mareš

Abstract

The process of philosophical questioning has the power to form not only our way of thinking, but also the way we live. Both my sporting and academic career have made me think about the importance of asking good questions and undergoing the process of answering them. I decided to create a profession of philosophical consultation in sport which works with athletes and coaches of various ages. Consultants and athletes (clients) engage in a dialogue about important and interesting questions/topics in client’s life. This dialogical process is called philosophical consultation. It focuses on critical evaluation and development of client’s thinking, self-cognition, and attitudes/worldviews. Philosophical consultation helps athletes and coaches to look for their identity and achieve better self-awareness. It can be argued that consultation offers what Patočka calls the “care of the soul” (epimeleia peri tês psychês) or what Foucault calls the “care of the self” (epimeleia heautou), which are based on Socrates’ kind of philosophizing. It helps to achieve ancient ideals of kalokagathia and gnôthi seauton. The potential of using philosophy in sport hasn’t been fully discovered. Philosophical consultation is presented as a process of self-cognition and inner development. It has the potential to influence the care for well-being of athletes and coaches.

I aim to explore the practical role of philosophy in sport. I will present possible connections between philosophy and sport and the historical predecessors of the concept of philosophical consultancy in sport. As well, we will discuss what philosophical consultancy is, how philosophical consultant works, and finally what are the challenges in bringing philosophical consultation into sport. Methods that are used in this interdisciplinary article are critical textual analysis, description, and interpretation of data.

Open access

Krister Hertting

Abstract

In Sweden, the formal soccer coach education programs are divided into different levels and are also divided into youth coaching and senior coaching. This paper focuses on youth soccer coaches and their reflections on coach education programs. In the background section the Swedish context is described, as well as current research on coaches’ education and learning. The aim of the paper was to investigate youth soccer coaches’ reflections on coach education programs and to analyse their reflections by using a cultural approach to learning. The empirical material of the paper derives from a web-based questionnaire, posing questions about competence, learning and stress. The coaches were also invited to reflect on the question “how do you believe that soccer associations can educate good coaches?” There were 369 responses, and these were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results indicated reflections about Flexibility in time, place and content, Mentorship supporting informal learning, Demanding mandatory education and emolument, Education focusing on wholeness and Education being based in practice. The conclusion was that decentralization of education and development of coaches’ contexts, abilities and motivation to critically analyse aims and contents of coach education programs are improvement areas for learning and coaching practices.

Open access

Róbert G. Zimányi and Gábor Géczi

Abstract

The tennis Grand Slam tournaments play a key role among the major sport events. Sport has also got a social interest to strive for justice. Is the main draw always fair? Is the competition format system right? Overall: can we achieve a just final result? When answering these questions, we need to focus on the telos of the sport event. Present study shows the relating theories of justice and examines them in connection with the US Open: from the evolutionist conception, through Aristotle’s excellence-based justice theory, to egalitarianism, meritocracy, equity and it also analyses some issues around positive discrimination. The study examines the justice theories of the US Open 2017 Men’s Singles Tournament’s with special focus on the draw, the competition format system and the final result. An important point: we can only talk about justice if it is consistent with the telos of the event – this is an exclusion criterion. In addition to the systematic processing of justice theories, the research is based on the International Tennis Federation’s (ITF) official documents and on the case study: the official competition regulation and final result of the US Open 2017 Tournament. As an outcome of the research, we can conclude that several theories of justice appear in accordance with the telos of the US Open 2017 Tournament. Each element, namely the draw, the competition format system and the final result can be fair, however, they all depend on the applied theory of justice. Which theories should be applied in certain cases and why? The research also confirms that certain theories of justice do not match the telos of the US Open Grand Slam Tournament. These theories cannot be applied in certain cases. For future search areas we can examine other justice theories, or other related tennis event’s justice.

Open access

Ho Jin Chung, Ho Keat Leng and Chanmin Park

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the discourse in physical education (PE) classes among primary school students in Singapore and reveal the distinctive governing epistemological structure. Eight primary school students were interviewed, and an archaeological analysis based on Foucault’s thoughts and works was employed. The findings of this study provided a deeper understanding of PE discourse and offered a unique perspective on the conditions for such discourse to happen. A Foucauldian approach is thus a useful tool for policymakers when designing the PE curriculum and syllabus.

Open access

Kacper Zagała and Artur Strzelecki

Abstract

Sport used to be practiced and watched only live. Over time, it started to be broadcast by the radio or television. The development of sport on the Internet has led to the emergence of eSports and professionalization of virtual sports competitions. For some gamers playing computer games has turned into competition and later into the professionalization of the game. This paper explores the topic of electronic sports and virtual competition. It discusses eSports and the accompanying behaviors and practices. Authors delivered taxonomy of video game types, game modes and current phenomenon of both online and land-based tournaments as well eSports leagues. The paper also illustrates how gamers are preparing themselves for tournaments and a crucial role of gamers’ motivation. Authors present the FIFA football games series and its eSports application. The adopted research method allowed to obtain answers from n=452 gamers. Results show that 60% of gamers have been spending more than 7 hours a week playing games. More than half of gamers have been playing for more than ten years. Most players play in games because it is considered as a hobby. Most of the gamers consider eSports as a sport. Most of the players are also spectators, who had watched in streaming at least one eSports tournament We find that FIFA game series has an extensive eSports platform and filled the gap by exploring it. Gamers usually play 40 games each weekend in FIFA eSports league but casual eSports gamers and spectators rarely take part in land-based tournaments.

Open access

Pompiliu-Nicolae Constantin and Marius Stoicescu

Abstract

Mass-media is often called „the guard dog of society” due to its role in alerting the population when an issue is identified and this aspect is feasible also in sports media. This research analyses the media’s roles, responsibilities and its relationship with whistleblowers. The main focus of this presentation is on methods used by journalists in order to identify and research sensitive subjects such as corruption, doping and other cases of harmful irregularities in sport. Based on interviews with journalists from Romania, using a qualitative interpretation of their speech, it will be possible to see behind the façade of the journalist-sources relationship. „How could we increase the rate of investigations and the number of whistleblowers in sport?” is a central question of this research. The study examines also how to ensure a more critical approach to the task of exploring the influences in Romanian sports and in what manner this case could be framed in the global context. It helps to understand the potential of sports communication and educational journalism to influence in a positive manner the dynamics of reporting everyday issues and eruptive scandals in sport. An inquiring and sceptical media could help more to enhance transparency and encourage other sports stars or sports people to take action.

Open access

Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Theodoros Pontidis, Alexandra Avloniti, Chariklia K. Deli, Diamanda Leontsini, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis D. Tsimeas, Lefteris Rafailakis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Peter Krustrup, Magni Mohr and Ioannis G. Fatouros

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of the physiological and overload features of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) in competitive male soccer (n = 20), basketball (n = 11), and volleyball players (n = 10). The participants completed Yo-Yo IE2 tests on three separate occasions with assessment of performance, heart rate, running speed, accelerations, decelerations and body load using GPS instrumentation. The intra-class correlation coefficient index, confidence intervals and coefficients of variation were calculated to assess the reliability of the test. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest trials in the total sample ranged from large to nearly perfect (total distance: 0.896; mean speed: 0.535; maximum speed: 0.715; mean HR: 0.876; maximum HR: 0.866; body load: 0.865). The coefficients of variation for distance, mean speed, HR response, as well as acceleration and deceleration scores for test-retest trials ranged from 1.2 to 12.5% with no differences observed among particular sport disciplines. The CV for shuttles performed ranged from 4.4 to 5.5% in all sports. Similar results were obtained for the three different categories of players tested. These results suggest that the Yo-Yo IE2 test appears to be a reliable alternative for evaluating the ability to perform intermittent high-intensity running in different outdoor and indoor team sports. Players may need one or two familiarization tests to ensure valid assessment of intermittent endurance capacity. It appears that the Yo-Yo IE2 test incorporates accelerations and decelerations in a consistent and reproducible fashion.

Open access

A. Vanessa Bataller-Cervero, Héctor Gutierrez, Jacobo DeRentería, Eduardo Piedrafita, Noel Marcén, Carlos Valero-Campo, Manuel Lapuente and César Berzosa

Abstract

Our purpose was to assess the 10 Hz Viper GPS devices’ validity and reliability (STATSport) in both instantaneous and mean speed measuring in accelerations and decelerations in straight-line running conditions. Eight amateur team sport players participated in the study, performing firstly 21 x 40 m sprints at submaximal incremental speed, and secondly 21 x 40 m sprints, with the first stage consisting of submaximal incremental speed, and the second stage of subsequent submaximal decreasing speed. Criteria systems used to evaluate the GPS validity were a radar gun for instantaneous speed, and timing-gates for mean speed. Reliability was measured with two GPS devices carried by the same athlete, running 10 x (20 m + 20 m) sprints with a 180º change of direction and a 10 s inter-set rest interval. Results showed an agreement between GPS devices and the criteria systems measuring instantaneous speed (r = 0.98; standardized mean bias (SMB) = -0.07; standard typical error (STE) = 0.22) and mean speed (r = 0.99; SMB = 0.38; STE = 0.17). The reliability study presented a nearly perfect correlation between devices, a trivial SMB and a small STE (r = 0.97; SMB = 0.04; STE = 0.23). 10 Hz GPS devices are an adequate solution to monitor straight-line running speed in acceleration and deceleration conditions, but we would like to draw attention to the small errors and bias detected, such as the speed overestimation compared with timing gates.

Open access

Alireza Monajati, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mark Goss-Sampson and Fernando Naclerio

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform an electromyography comparison of three commonly used lower limb injury prevention exercises: a single-leg squat on a bench (SLSB), a double-leg squat (DLS) and a double-leg squat on a BOSU® balance trainer (DLSB). After determining the maximum isometric voluntary contraction of the hamstring and quadriceps, eight female athletes performed 3 repetitions of each exercise, while electromyography activity of the biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) was monitored. Comparisons between exercises revealed higher activation in BF (descending phase: p = 0.016, d = 1.36; ascending phase: p = 0.046, d = 1.11), ST (descending phase: p = 0.04, d = 1.87; ascending phase: p = 0.04, d = 1.87), VL (ascending phase: p = 0.04, d = 1.17) and VM (descending phase: p = 0.05, d = 1.11; ascending phase: p = 0.021, d = 1.133) muscles for the SLSB compared to the DLSQ. Furthermore, higher muscular activation of the ST (ascending phase: p = 0.01, d = 1.51; descending phase: p = 0.09, d = 0.96) and VM (ascending phase: p = 0.065, d = 1.03; descending phase: p = 0.062, d = 1.05) during the SLSB with respect to the DLSB was observed. In conclusion, the SLSB elicits higher neuromuscular activation in both hamstring and quadriceps muscles compared to the other two analysed exercises. Additionally, the higher muscle activation of both medial muscles (ST and VM) during the SLSB suggests that single leg squatting exercises may enhance lower limb medial to lateral balance, and improve knee stability in the frontal plane.