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Open access

B. Matev

Abstract

The aim of this study is to present results after different procedures of surgical treatment of the unstable shoulder joint: arthroscopic stabilization; arthroscopic stabilization followed by the operative technique by Matev; the Latarjet procedure in cases with the presence of bone defects. From 2004 to 2017 291 patients aged between 15 and 35 years were operated at the University Hospital “Prof. B. Boychev”, Medical University − Sofia. 247 patients had anterior and 44 − combined shoulder instability. 173 of the patients were active athletes practicing different disciplines. The average age at the time of the first dislocation was 17 years. In 172 patients, the first dislocation occurred without significant trauma, 124 of them had anterior shoulder instability and 48 – combined shoulder instability. In 120 patients with anterior dislocations, there was history of a serious injury during the first accident. The number of dislocations varied between ten and fifteen in all patients. For the same period, 45 patients with significant bone defects requiring open surgery (Latarjet procedure) were operated. Among the patients with bone defects, the dislocations were between 8 and 30 before the first examination. There were 11 patients, who had undergone previous surgery in different hospitals and different number of relaxations after surgery were found. The data were evaluated radiographically and clinically. Functionally, the patients recovered according to a well-established protocol of physiotherapy and the external rotation regained the full range of motion. The patients were able to return to their sports activity. The successful results in all patients show that these combined operative techniques can be the method of choice in the treatment of a greater number of dislocations of the shoulder, especially in people who seek to quickly return to active sport activities.

Open access

M. Nikolova, Vl. Milenova, D. Yosifov, Y. Vlahov and V. Tenev

Abstract

Cocaine is a natural alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the South American plant Erythroxylum coca or synthesized chemically. After cannabis, it is the second most frequently abused recreational substance worldwide. Cocaine can affect every tissue and organ within the human body, including the kidneys, causing tissue ischemia due to vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction and damage, procoagulant activity and oxidative stress with subsequent ischemic infarctions and fibrosis. The renal changes in cocaine abuse and addiction are due to rhabdomyolysis, ischemic, hypertensive, and inflammatory changes with the development of cell proliferation and fibrosis. The authors present three patients with cocaine-associated renal damage and discuss the underlying mechanisms of cocaine-induces tissue changes.

Open access

Z. Mihaylova, R. Ugrinov, E. Aleksiev and P. Stanimirov

Abstract

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a relatively rare but serious pathology associated with the use of bisphosphonates (BPs) and antiresorptive drugs in patients with bone metastases, multiple myeloma and osteoporosis. Various cases of patients with jaw bone necrosis due to BPs have recently been reported in the literature. Anti-angiogenic drugs are novel anticancer agents prescribed to patients with renal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, soft tissue metastases, etc. Anti-angiogenic drugs target the vascular endothelial growth factor’s (VEGF) signaling pathways via different mechanisms and thus inhibit tumor cell proliferation, neoangiogenesis and tumor growth. Several reports have suggested a higher incidence of MRONJ in patients treated with BPs in combination with anti-angiogenic drugs. However, there is currently no sufficient data in the literature about the risk of ONJ in patients taking anti-angiogenic drugs or cancer chemotherapy alone. We present two clinical cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients treated with chemotherapy, but no history of BPs. In the first case the necrosis is related to the anti-angiogenic agent sunitinib in a patient with lung metastases and in the second case- to complex chemotherapy in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. We recommend conservative treatment with antibiotics in both cases, together with antiseptics and surgical removal of the necrotic bone following total demarcation of the sequesters.

Open access

Y. P. Yordanov and A. Shef

Abstract

Nowadays, minimally invasive and non-invasive approaches in aesthetic medicine are increasingly popular and non-surgical rhinoplasty is one of the procedures with rising demand worldwide. In Bulgaria, this procedure seems to be uncommonly performed, since there are no reports in the local scientific literature. The aim of this preliminary study was to briefly explore the possibilities of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers for correcting three of the most common nasal deformities – dorsal hump, under-projected and under-rotated nasal tip in primary cases. In order to accomplish this objective, a retrospective clinical study was conducted encompassing 11 cases of the authors’ practices with the above mentioned nasal irregularities and no previous surgical/non-surgical treatment. The analysis of patient-reported outcomes suggested a high satisfaction rate, with no major complication in the series. The HA filler has shown to be safe, relatively easily applicable and highly effective for camouflaging nasal deformities. A special emphasis was put on the patient safety and ten golden rules for staying out of trouble were given.

Open access

F. Al-Obaidi, T. Al-Kinani, M. H. Al-Ali and M. H. Al-Myahi

Abstract

Background: Atrial fibrillation is a relatively common complication of acute myocardial infarction with significant impact on the short and long-term prognosis.

Methods: A systematic literature review was done through Pubmed and CENTRAL to extract data related to new-onset atrial fibrillation following primary PCI.

Results: Searching resulted in twenty-one matched studies. Extraction of data showed an incidence rate of new-onset atrial fibrillation (2.8%-58%). A negative impact was found on the outcomes of patients treated with primary PCI with increased short and long-term mortality and morbidity.

Conclusion: New-onset atrial fibrillation is an adverse prognostic marker in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated invasively. Preventive measures and anticoagulant therapy should be considered more intensively in this subset of patients.

Open access

D. Vassileva, I. Nedelcheva, S. Mindova and I. Karaganova

Abstract

Introduction: The total knee replacement is the definitive treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is an effective intervention to correct OA-related functional limitation. In such patients postoperatively are observed significant differences in the biomechanics of the two knee joints. While bearing the body weight the unoperated knee joint becomes very painful, stiff and incapable of neutral positioning. These factors significantly hamper the initial training in gait with aids in the standard locomotive stereotype immediately after surgery for knee joint replacement, where walking plays an essential role in daily activities and has varied health benefits.

Aim: The aim of the study was to check whether different types of gait with aids in the early postoperative period after total knee replacement have a different influence on the recovery process.

Material and methods: This study was conducted between January 2017 and July 2018 in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of the University Hospital “Kanev” – Rousse. It included 56 patients with unilateral total knee replacement after gonarthrosis, divided into a control and experimental group, each of 28 patients. All patients in both groups had knee extension deficit of the untreated knee joint. The patients in both groups followed the same physiotherapy programs, performed from about the 2nd postoperative day to the 21st day when they were discharged from the department. The difference between the patients in both subgroups was their gait pattern with two axillary crutches.

Results and Discussion: There were statistically significant differences between both groups. One of the most significant differences was in ROM. In the experimental group patients, flexion was improved with an average of 20° more than in the control group patients. Also, in the operated joint, the patients in the experimental group had no contracture, whereas those in the control group showed 15° at the end of the follow-up period.

Conclusion: The results of the study show that the choice of gait training in the following order “crutches, operated leg, crutches, untreated leg” in patients with extensor deficiency and contracture in the untreated knee is more appropriate than the standard type of training in walking with aids.

Open access

S. Roshan-Milani, J. Khalilpour and A. Abdollahzade Fard

Abstract

Background/objectives: Recent data suggest a role for heparanase in several proteinuric conditions. An increased glomerular heparanase expression is associated with loss of heparan sulfate in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal effects of heparanase inhibition in a diabetic experimental model.

Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats (230 ± 20 g) were divided into three groups: 1) controls, 2) diabetics (STZ, 50 mg/kg, dissolved in saline, ip), 3) diabetics + heparanase inhibitor (Sulodexide 1/5 mg/kg per day, gavage). The treatment started on the 21st day, for 21 consecutive days. The rats were kept individually in a metabolic cage (8 AM-2 PM) and urine samples were collected on the 21st and 42nd day. At study end blood, urine and tissue samples were collected for biochemical (blood BUN and Cr, urine GAG and Protein) and histological analyses.

Results: The results of this study showed that the heparanase inhibitor (sulodexide) significantly decreased urine GAG and protein excretion, urine protein/creatinine ratio and serum BUN and Cr in streptozotocin-induced DN in the rats. Pathological changes were significantly alleviated in the DN rats having received the heparanase inhibitor (sulodexide).

Conclusion: Our data suggest that the heparanase inhibitor (sulodexide) is able to protect against functional and histopathological injury in DN.

Open access

D. Konstantinova, A. Nenova-Nogalcheva and P. Pechalova

Abstract

The extraction of mandibular third molars is a traumatic procedure accompanied by marked clinical symptoms in the postoperative period. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the removal of a partially impacted mandibular third molar on the masticatory efficiency in patients in the early postoperative period.

Material and methods. A total of 47 participants, divided into two groups, took part in this pilot study. The first group included 33 patients with a mean age of 18.3 years (SD = 0.9 years), defined as the Control group; the second group involved patients with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 1.86), referred to as the Clinical group. The masticatory efficiency of the Clinical group patients was objectively double-checked using a Protab® test bite: once during the preliminary examination (prior to extraction of the wisdom tooth) and again 7 days after the surgical removal of the wisdom tooth. A sieve analysis was applied to determine the artificial test bite particle size and size distribution following mastication. Feedback on the Clinical group patients’ assessment of any subjective complaints was obtained through a questionnaire containing two questions considered relevant to patients’ masticatory efficiency. The data from the sieve analysis of each fraction were analyzed using the Statistics Software Package for Epidemiological and Clinical Research (IBM SPSS V.20.00).

Results. The data processing of all parameters tested prior to and after extraction of the wisdom tooth revealed statistically significant differences. Only the duration of chewing after the third molar extraction matched the chewing duration in the healthy control subjects (p = 0.198). The analysis of the feedback on the self-assessment of patients from the Clinical group demonstrated that prior to extraction all subjects (100%) experienced pain to a varying degree, whereas in half of the patients (50%) the pain disappeared following extraction. The Spearman’s test for correlation between mean particle sizes as well as the questionnaire feedback indicated a strong positive relationship with food trapping. Accordingly, the larger mean particle size was linked to the self-assessment of food trapping around the wisdom tooth prior to extraction (Spear-man’s Rho = 0.57, p = 0.032). There was also a correlation between the chewing time and the sensation of pain in the teeth adjacent to the extraction wound. The results suggested that the shorter duration of chewing was associated with a greater sensation of pain (Spear-man’s Rho = -0.61, p = 0.026).

Conclusion. The eruption of mandibular third molars causes difficulties in the masticatory process. A positive trend was observed towards normalizing of the chewing duration following extraction (t = -1.356, p = 0.198).

Open access

R. Mekova and M. Boyanov

Abstract

Objective: Graves’ disease (GD) is characterized by elevated TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) and less often – thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb). Our aim was to examine the hormonal and ultrasound characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed GD with differing positive thyroid antibodies.

Materials and Methods: This study included 249 patients with newly diagnosed GD (191 women, 58 men). 40.2% of them had Graves’ ophtalmopathy. The serum levels of TSH, free T4, free T3, TRAb, TPOAb, and TgAb were measured with third generation ECLIA assays (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland). Thyroid ultrasound was performed with a Fukuda-Denshi 550 device (Fukuda Corp., Japan) and an Ultrasonix device (Ultrasonix Medical Corp., Canada). Statistical analyses were done using the SPSS 23.0 statistical package (Chicago, IL).

Results: 64% of the patients were TPOAb+ and 36% − TgAb+. One third were only TRAb+, 1/3 had two positive antibodies (TRAb + second antibody) and 1/3 – all three positive antibodies. Patients with more positive antibodies tended to be younger, had higher fT4, TRAb levels, thyroid volume but rarely had nodules on US and accompanying GO. Positive TPOAb antibodies were found in younger patients, with higher fT4 and TRAb levels, higher thyroid volume and lower prevalence of nodules and GO. The same trends were found in patients with positive TgAb.

Conclusion: The different characteristics of GD patients with varying thyroid antibody profiles may be due to a variation in the pathogenesis of the disease. An individualized clinical approach may be suitable in those cases.

Open access

R. Gancheva, A. Kundurdjiev, T. Kundurdjiev and Zl. Kolarov

Abstract

Aim: To study the differences in cardiovascular risk between type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gout using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and complex multimodal ultrasonography.

Patients and methods: A total of 201 patients participated, divided into two groups: 1/ patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (n = 52), and 2/ patients with gout (n = 149). FRS was determined as well as ultrasound parameters, independent predictors of cardiovascular risk: left atrial size (LA), intima-media thickness (IMT) and common carotid artery resistive index (CCARI).

Results: The patients in the two groups were age-matched and conventional cardiovascular risk factors were equally distributed. In the asymptomatic hyperuricemia group, 12 patients (23.1%) had diabetes. In this group, there was no difference in FRS between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. However, diabetic patients had larger LA, thicker intima-media and higher CCARI. In the gout group 18 subjects (12%) had diabetes, but the FRS, LA, IMT and CCARI values were similar among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Furthermore, when gout subjects were subdivided according to the presence of tophi, we found that the subgroup having gouty tophi and diabetes had larger LA (p = 0.014) compared to those with gouty tophi without diabetes.

Conclusion: In diabetic patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gouty tophi, a more complex approach for estimation of cardiovascular risk is needed. Our work suggests that diabetes and tophi might potentiate their action on the cardiovascular system.