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Transplanting date adjustment in Boro rice cultivation as a strategy to reduce groundwater withdrawal in Bangladesh

Abstract

Due to intensive irrigated rice cultivation during dry season, declining trend of groundwater level is observed in many parts of Bangladesh. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at four experimental stations of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Bangladesh to evaluate the performance of some Boro rice cultivars in different planting dates with respect to yield and irrigation water requirement, and to optimize between yield and irrigation water requirement, with a view to reduce groundwater withdrawal and hence reducing mining of groundwater. The transplanting dates were 21th January (T1), 15th February (T2), 7th March and 30th March. Four rice cultivars were used. The results showed that the rice growth period was shortened with the later dates of transplanting. Generally, the yield of all cultivars at first and second transplanting (i.e. in T1 & T2) are good, and decrease at the later transplanting dates (T3, T4) and hence could not be recommended among farmers. When we consider the irrigation savings in T2 compare to T1, the irrigation savings varies with location and year, but the general tendency is that the second transplanting can save irrigation water. By considering economic (intrusion of additional rabi crop between two rice crops) and ecological factor (irrigation reduction, and hence reducing groundwater withdrawal), we recommend that the most suitable transplanting time for Boro rice should be 15th February. As such, we can effectively achieve good yield, reduce irrigation requirement, and creating opportunity for possible intrusion of addition Rabi crop between two rice crops. Overall, the findings of the present study can provide effective transplanting time and cultivar to reduce groundwater withdrawal in the present agro-ecosystem of northwestern Bangladesh and other similar areas.

Open access
Development of Additional Professional Medical Education Organisation in Accordance with the Principles of Quality Management

Abstract

Issues of education quality have acquired special relevance since the beginning of the 20th century. Implementation of the idea of quality in the educational organisation is promoted by use of the international ISO standards regulating quality of the management system. Certification of a quality management system in an organisation ensures its sustainable development. Experience of such work exemplified by additional medical education organisation is presented in the article.

The present paper addresses approaches to implementation of the following quality management principles: customer focus; leadership; involvement of people; process approach; continuous improvement; evidence-based decision making; relationship management; system approach to management. The structure of processes in the medical education institution is presented including the major process “Professional training and retraining in the field of health care”, main (core) processes: “Educational activities” and “Scientific activities”; management processes: “Strategic planning”, “Documentation management”, “Records management”, “Internal audits”, “Nonconformity management”, “Corrective and preventive actions”, “Monitoring and measurement of processes and educational services”, “Quality management system analysis by senior management”; supporting processes: “Personnel management”, “Work environment management and information support”, “Financial and economic support”, “Library services”, “Methodical support of the educational process and training for teachers”, “Publishing activities”. All processes are designated in a consistent model with special codes, which helps to streamline the document management system in the organisation.

Open access
The Importance of Teaching History of Prosthetic Dentistry for Future Dentists’ Personality Formation

Abstract

Currently in the modern pedagogical process at a higher medical institution, teachers often shift emphasis towards the new technologies and methods for treating diseases. In this case, classical techniques, their development, and scientists who influenced the formation of orthopaedic dentistry are undeservedly downplayed in the training process. In order to preserve the interest of dental students in the historical process, it is necessary to teach the material taking into account modern processes that occur in orthopaedic dentistry. We searched for materials on the history of prosthetic dentistry in the scientific and historical literature. A special attention was paid to those moments of history that had been reflected in the present through modern materials, schools or methods of treating patients. After the selection of the materials and their discussion, the teaching staff of the KrasSMU Department-Clinic for Prosthetic Dentistry made proposals regarding each of the nine training cycles. In each study cycle, we included some information about historical moments and personalities that are known to be important for students’ moral education and learning. Specifically, we used information taken from the scientific and historical literature, autobiographies, memoirs of contemporaries, and presentations containing material suitable for assimilation. Thus, we managed to naturally include the history of prosthetic dentistry into the educational process.

The applied approach to teaching the history of medicine had many positive aspects. Following up the development of views on various prosthetic dentistry issues allowed us to provide a more natural introduction to complex clinical disciplines. We emphasized the scientific experience continuity and the interdisciplinary approach to professional issues. A number of positive moral and ethical qualities were discussed that have allowed scientists to achieve significant results in their activities. Through the demonstration of domestic scientists’ achievements, we carried out promotion of patriotism among the students. Considering the above advantages, we emphasize the importance of teaching the history of prosthetic dentistry in educating future dentists.

Open access
Late Cognitive Impairment After Coronary Bypass Graft Surgery: Opportunities in Rehabilitation with the Use of Computer-Based Training

Abstract

In spite of recent significant advances in reduction of mortality and disability, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains widespread both in Russia and around the world. Coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) has proved to be the most effective method of CHD treatment, providing that conservative therapy is not effective enough. The aim of the present study was to reveal and correct postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), developed under the conditions of cardiopulmonary bypass (CB) in patients with CHD within 12 months after CABG.

A total of 87 patients were examined, all the patients underwent a course of drug therapy, 50 patients underwent a course of rehabilitation using computer-based stimulation programmes (once per day for 20 minutes within 10 days) in addition to medical therapy. A reliable improvement in results of the conducted research suggests that the proposed method provides safety and high performance in cognitive rehabilitation of patients with impairments of the higher brain functions after CABG. A relatively short course of rehabilitation (10 days) corresponded to the length of hospital stay of patients in the cardiac unit. However, even in such a short course we could obtain significant advantage in terms of efficiency of higher cortical functions recovery. Therefore, a course of rehabilitation using computer-based stimulation programmes in patients with coronary heart disease after CABG was proved to be an effective way of correcting cognitive function.

Open access
Poor Knowledge of the Harmful Effects of Shisha Among Shisha Smokers: Findings from a Preliminary Survey in Northwest Nigeria

Abstract

Background: Tobacco smoking is an addictive behavior with heavy risks accompanying its prolonged practice. Unfortunately, more and more people are indulging in tobacco smoking habits despite the public health education programs going on worldwide about the dangers associated with tobacco smoking behavior. This study aims to survey active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi Local Government Area (LGA), Kebbi State, Nigeria, on the awareness of the harmful effects associated with shisha smoking.

Methods: This study was a survey of 45 active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi LGA. Snowballing technique was adopted in participants’ recruitment. Study instrument was a questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software.

Results: Majority (32/45) of the participants were males, 16 had secondary school education, and 19 were within age range of 15 to 24 years. The majority (25/45) of them began to smoke shisha at the age of 18 years or more; also, 20 participants smoked shisha in all the 30 days prior to their participation in this study. Less than half of the study participants knew that: shisha is a stimulant (6/45), shisha smoke contains carbon monoxide (10/45), and the liquid in shisha could be replaced with alcohol (15/45). However, more than half of the participants knew that shisha contains nicotine (23/45) and tobacco (25/45). Only 16, 13, 11, 9, 5, 10, and 13 participants knew that shisha smoking could lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, increase in the risk of infections, reduced baby weight in pregnancy, gum and mouth disease, eye disease and blindness, and harm to non-smokers, respectively.

Conclusion: Many of the active shisha smokers surveyed in this study began smoking shisha at a young age. Also, a significant proportion of them were unaware of the health hazards associated with shisha use; hence the need to educate them and even the Nigerian public on the dangers associated with shisha use.

Open access
Simultaneous Evaluation of Communication Skills by Standardized Patients and Medical Evaluators

Abstract

Introduction: The present study analyzes the evaluation of communication skills by standardized patients (SPs) and medical evaluators (Es) in an OSCE setting.

Methods: The OSCE involved 189 sixth-year medical students, as well as 34 SPs and 63 Es. Communications skills were evaluated in 8 stations, simultaneously by SPs and Es. The SPs were actors who had been trained in the clinical case and who acted in accordance with a standardized script in a simulated clinical situation. The evaluators, also standardized, were Resident Doctors or staff Doctors from the Hospital Services involved.

Results: The global scores awarded to students for communication skills were very similar in both groups, although the score awarded by Es was significantly higher, and a direct relationship was also observed between the mean scores awarded by both groups. Evaluators awarded significantly higher scores than SPs in 7 out of the 10 items on the checklist. Female medical students also scored significantly higher than their male counterparts in many items, including external appearance, listening, cordiality, optimism, interest, expression and empathy.

Discussion: Our data indicate that SPs and Es evaluated communication skills in a similar manner in an OSCE setting, a finding which suggests that health-related professionals can be used as an alternative to SPs, thus helping to lower economic costs. Our study also confirms a gender difference (in favor of women) in the evaluation of communications skills by both groups.

Open access
Extraction and Evaluation of Phytochemicals From Banana Peels (Musa sapientum) and Banana Plants (Musa paradisiaca)

Abstract

Banana plants (Musa paradaisica) and banana peels (Musa sapientum) two of same genus Musa are grown in worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purpose. All parts of the banana plants have medicinal applications. The aim of the present study was detection of phytochemicals from this two types of samples and find out some viable phytochemicals which might be used as food additives after commercial purification. These two types of samples banana plants and banana peels were collected from local area of sobhanbagh near Daffodil International University. Samples were washed and dried in room temperature and grinded in pestle. Then 25 gm of grinded samples were soaked in 75 ml of 70% methanol, ethanol, acetone and 0.9% NaCl solution for 72 hours. Then all the extracts of banana peels and banana plants were detected by standard protocol. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, terpenoids, were detected from those extracts. Negative and positive result of presence of phytochemicals were detected by the observing of color change. Banana peels and banana plant extracts were showed maximum result in ethanolic extracts. The present study showed qualitative analysis of phytochemicals content existence in banana peels and banana plants extracts. The study also discussed the application of some phytochemicals in food industry.

Open access
A Review on Status of Production of Large Cardamom in Nepal and its Marketing in National and Global Scenario

Abstract

The study mainly focuses on the status of production and marketing of large cardamom in Nepal and also compares these dimensions in the context of different countries. For the study mainly secondary data were collected from research articles, reports, publications and news articles. Large cardamom is the third most expensive crop and one of the major cash crops of Nepal. Nepal is the largest producer of large cardamom in the world followed by India and Bhutan. Taplejung, Sankhuwasabha, Panchthar and Illam are the four major districts that contribute more than 80% of the national production. Cardamom produced in Nepal is graded according to tail cutting after drying and packed in jute bag or plastic to export it to foreign countries. Nepal exports almost 90 percentage of its total cardamom production to India. In the global scenario, Guatemala is the largest exporter of cardamom (small and large combined) followed by India, Nepal, Singapore and Indonesia respectievly. It was found that the production of cardamom is declining in Nepal due to price fluctuation and viral diseases such as Chirkey, Furkey. Problem such as absence of unique HS code for large cardamom and ‘duplicate large cardamom’ are also seen in the market.

Open access