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Open access

Ling He, Yu-Feng Ma, Ke-Sen Zhang and Ya-Xing Wang

Abstract

In recent years, shortage of nurses, high turnover rate, low self-worth, and team instability have become increasingly serious. With the development of positive psychology, more and more nursing managers have begun to attach great importance to the mental health of nurses. Self-esteem, as one of the core indicators of individual mental health, has received extensive attention from researchers in different fields since its inception. This paper reviews and summarizes the research status and development trends of nurses’ self-esteem considering the aspects of self-esteem as a concept, assessment tools, significance, and intervention methods. At the same time, it also puts forward problems that need to be solved by undertaking research into nurses’ self-esteem, in order to provide a reference for further studies on nurses’ self-esteem.

Open access

Qiao-Miao Zeng and Lian-Xiang He

Abstract

Objective

Reflection is a process of deliberating thinking and examining one’s practice in the past and thereby encouraging nurses to make improvements in future care delivery. This work outlines a piece of reflection involving the practice of communication between nurses and the elderly, to emancipate the authors from their constraints, help to find values as practitioners, and gain a greater understanding of the nurse–patient relationship.

Methods

Using Smyth’s four-stage model as a guide, as well as empirical and theoretical knowledge on nurse–patient relationships, this paper presents a deep reflection on the relationship that the authors developed with elderly patients and their families, encountered during the practice as a nurse. By applying the four main stages consisting of describe, inform, confront, and reconstruct, this model enabled the authors to frame, describe the practice issue, and explore the meaning behind it, which helps to facilitate a structured reflection.

Results

Critical emancipatory reflection, in association with the Espoused theory and Theory-in-use, as well as reflexivity, critical social theory, and hegemony, was applied to uncover the various power relationships and constraining forces in the authors’ practice involved in communicating with the elderly, such as the underlying false consciousness, hegemony, hidden assumptions, influential values, and dominant power structure, which are subtle and persuasive. By applying this process of critical reflection, transformative practice could be achieved.

Conclusions

The process of critical reflection facilitated the development of the abilities required to develop and maintain the nurse– patient relationship. It helps to enhance the care of old patients and their families, which illuminates the future nursing practice.

Open access

Yue Zhang and Marcia A. Petrini

Abstract

Objective

The elderly population has proliferated worldwide. The empty-nest family pattern has become predominant among the aging people, and they are more vulnerable to the development of cognitive disorders. However, there is no standardized service in the community nursing care that includes procedures on how to improve the cognitive function of the elderly. Meanwhile, the booming number of empty-nest elderly stimulates the community nurses to assume the responsibility for their care. All of these bring more difficulties and opportunities for community nurses who are dedicated to the prevention of geriatric cognitive disorders.

Methods

The authors reviewed the literature related to “empty-nest elderly”, “cognitive function”, “mahjong”, and “Chinese square dance” in the Elsevier, Web of Science (WOS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Springer and PubMed databases. The study illustrates the utility possibility of an efficient and straightforward method for improving the cognitive function among the elderly in the context of community nursing care in China and even in the rest of the world.

Results

Mental and physical activity contributes to cognitive fitness and may be beneficial in delaying cognitive decline. Mental activities, such as playing mahjong, and physical activities, such as the Chinese square dance, are common Chinese activities. Both of them can affect cognitive function in some way.

Conclusions

China is experiencing one of its most severe aging problems. Community health personnel and related professionals may consider using mahjong and Chinese square dance to promote psychological health in empty-nest elderly individuals in the community.

Open access

Lian-Lian Tang

Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to demonstrate and promote the skill of critical emancipatory reflection through reflecting on a nursing practice-based ethical issue about nurses’ paternalistic decision-making for patients. Meanwhile, critical awareness will be developed and the underlying issues of paternalism in nursing decision-making will be analyzed. Then, by applying the procedure, improvement in nursing decision-making practice will be expected.

Methods

Taylor’s model of emancipatory reflection with four steps, including construction, deconstruction, confrontation, and reconstruction, is utilized to guide the author’s reflection.

Results

Guided by the socialization theory, the author’s personal and professional socialization is seen to be associated with the formation of the value of paternalism. The theory of reflexivity is applied to unearth the related issues, including deeper personal value, work environment, as well as historical and cultural contexts. Moreover, the power derived from policy, work relationship, and nursing administration, which could induce paternalism in the author’s nursing decision-making practice, was critically debated using the hegemony theory. Finally, new insights into paternalism will be achieved, which enable change in terms of how to facilitate patients’ autonomous decision-making.

Conclusions

The process of refection makes it clear that respecting patients’ right and performing patient-centered caring are the bases to change the paternalism existing in the nursing decision-making practice currently. The reconstruction step assists the author in terms of how to value the patients’ autonomy and balance patients’ safety and choice, rather than being overprotective; carry out risk assessment, and search for strong evidence to counterbalance the positive and negative aspects of risk-taking; communicate with patients appropriately in a manner that they can comprehend; spend more time to explore patients’ preference and choice; make every effort to elevate the patients’ decision-making capacity; implement patient-centered care and shared decision-making in nursing practice; consult with other colleagues and obtain the required support when limitations or challenges exist; try to justify and avoid hidden paternalism behind policy or guidelines; deal with the power in hand well and fairly; and also positively face the powers that constrain the author.

Open access

Agus Warseno and Anastasia Suci Sukmawati

Abstract

Objective

Relaxation technique is a nonpharmacological treatment applied to increase sleep efficiency and the quality of sleep. Hydrotherapy is one of the relaxation techniques and uses warm water to decrease stress and muscle stiffness, as well as to warm the body. The incidence of sleep deficiency among older people in Integrated Community Health Services, Pandak I Bantul, has slightly increased year by year. This research aims to evaluate the effect of hydrotherapy on sleep deprivation among older people.

Methods

The research was a quasi-experimental study with a pre–post test design. Purposive sampling was used to enroll 66 older people from the Integrated Community Health Services, Pandak I Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, as a sample, and we divided them into two groups: 33 people formed the intervention group, and 33 people comprised the control group. The intervention group did hydrotherapy once a day for a total of 7 days. First, they soaked their feet in warm water for 10 minutes. The water temperature was adjusted according to the body temperature, to approximately 40.0°C–43.0°C. Then, the intervention group took a bath using warm water. The level of sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Data analysis was done using the Wilcoxon test.

Results

The mean score for sleep quality in the pretest in the intervention group was 9.04 (standard deviation [SD]: 2.57) and the score on the posttest was 42 (SD: 1.43). The mean score for sleep quality in the intervention group was 4.67, with P=0.05. Meanwhile, the research found that the difference between the pretest and posttest scores for quality of sleep in the control group was 0.42, with P=0.059. Wilcoxon analysis found that in the intervention group, there was a significant difference after intervention using hydrotherapy, with P<0.05. In the control group, there was no significance difference between the pretest and posttest scores, with P>0.05.

Conclusions

According to the results of the present study, it appears that the practice of hydrotherapy is effective in reducing sleep deficiency and hence can be considered an effective method of intervention.

Open access

Xiao Xiao and She-Ning Zhu

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this article is to reflect on the role of theater nurses in a multidisciplinary team, understand the factors that have influenced theater nurses’ practice, and improve the authors’ clinical practice ultimately.

Methods

The author used Smyth’s model to guide the process of reflection on the practice issue. Critical reflection, critical emancipatory theory, reflexivity, and critical social theory were used to help the author analyze the factors that have affected theater nurses’ practice in the organization.

Results

There are gaps between the espoused and enacted theories. A theater nurse’s practice is determined by multiple factors, such as political, structural, social, historical, cultural issues, and so on. The hierarchy of the health context could hinder possible changes in theater nurses’ practice. To better understand our practice and implement transformation, we should shape a supportive environment, bear in mind the practice motto of “patient-centered” care, and improve our knowledge and reflection skills.

Conclusions

Reflection plays a significant role in the advancing of practice among theater nurses and needs to be combined with clinical practice. To provide the best service of care to perioperative patients, a theater nurse should have an insightful understanding of the factors that have influenced her/his behaviors historically, socially, and culturally. By improving their critical reflection skills, practitioners could gain knowledge from experience.

Open access

Rui-Fang Zhu, Hong-Xia Ren, Xiu-Juan Wang, Chi-Chen Zhang, Qi Yu, Zhi-Guang Duan and Shi-Fan Han

Abstract

As nursing becomes a first-level discipline, the central focus of the development process of nursing science is the independent exploration of the future path of nursing care. Although many countries have made efforts to develop nursing as an independent discipline, no remarkable advancement has been achieved due to the incorrect understanding of the relationship between nursing and medicine and the improper comprehension of other factors involved in the process of nursing reform. Teaching and practicing nursing also face many problems. Based on our understanding of the relationship between nursing and medicine and through a careful analysis of the existing problems in the current nursing discipline, this paper provides some insights into the future directions of nursing development by exploring the independently developing nursing discipline in foreign countries.

Open access

Hua Yang

Abstract

Objective

This paper aims at critically reflecting on the author’s personal experience in the context of communication within a nursing team and exploring relevant existing constraints with a view to improving practice and achieving more effective outcomes in team communication.

Methods

Critical emancipatory reflection is used to evaluate and interpret the author’s practice. Smyth’s model serves as a framework to guide critical reflection step by step in this paper. Relevant theoretical perspectives help to make sense of the author’s performance in terms of team communication.

Results

It is identified via emancipatory reflection that the author endorses the ideas of equality, respect, trust, and collaboration, which were formed and established during the process of professional socialization. However, different constraints, such as sociocultural, historical, political, and personal factors, impede the author from performing more effectively in terms of team communication. Reconstruction provides the author opportunities to take actions to rectify constraints and avoid the reemergence of previous situations in the future.

Conclusions

Reflection is an effective way to gather knowledge and develop comprehensive understanding of practice. Alternative actions for effective team communication are recommended, including formulating ground rules for discussion, guiding nurses in the correct way, transforming conflicts within a team, being an active and reflective listener, and motivating nurses to actively create.

Open access

Yan-Ling Lai

Abstract

Objective

Reflection is considered to be one of the important ways to learn from one’s experience, and one should be encouraged to apply the skill of reflection in lifelong learning. The author used the critical emancipatory reflection theory to reflect on a practice issue, which was related to the relationship between doctors and nurses, and tries to become a lifelong reflective practitioner in clinical work.

Methods

Smyth’s reflective framework, which includes the steps describe, inform, confront, and reconstruct, will be used in this article to help the author to understand the process of reflection and improve the skill of reflection. Utilizing Smyth’s reflective framework to reflect on an issue in practice allows the author to break the routine way of thinking and learn from experience, as well as providing a higher quality of service for patients.

Results

The theory of emancipatory reflection along with the critical reflection theory will be used to determine the beliefs and values that rule the author’s action and derive how these are distinct from what the author is supposed to achieve. Besides, critical emancipatory reflection theory will be used to discover the dominant power structures in clinical practice; symbolic interaction and hegemony will be utilized to discover the factors that prevent the author from achieving the desired goals; socialization theory will be applied to facilitate the author in improving the professional identity.

Conclusions

Using the critical emancipatory reflection on the issue in practice helps the author to find out the constraints in practice, bridge the espoused value and enacted value, and thereafter undertake transformative changes in practice. Eventually, the author can improve the skill of critical emancipatory reflection and become a lifelong reflective practitioner, and the quality of clinical practice can be improved as a result.