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Open access

Gabriela Roman, Anca-Elena Crăciun, Adriana Rusu, Cristian Crăciun, Bogdan Ananie and Cornelia Bala

Abstract

Background and aims: The present study aimed to assess the relative validity of the Romanian version of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in evaluating habitual dietary intake.

Material and methods: We used an FFQ that comprised questions on 90 beverage and food items from Nurses Health Questionnaire. The linguistic interchangeability between translation and original questions of the FFQ was assessed in 50 bilingual adults. Also, the FFQ was validated against the 24-h recall diary in 85 participants from ORO study enrolled in Cluj County.

Results: The Spearman correlation coefficients between the Romanian and English versions of the FFQ ranged between 0.614 and 1.000, with the majority having values >0.900 (p <0.05 for all). Caloric and nutrient intake estimated from FFQ was significantly correlated with that derived from 24-h dietary recall (correlation coefficients 0.243 to 0.339; p-values <0.05). >70% of the participants were classified in the same or adjacent quartiles of energy and nutrient consumption showing a good agreement between FFQ and 24-h dietary recall. Tested FFQ questionnaire had a good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.931 and 0.949, respectively.

Conclusion: Tested FFQ had an acceptable relative validity and can be used to estimate caloric and macronutrient intake.

Open access

Natalia Pertseva, Inna Borysova and Daria Chub

Abstract

Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) have been proposed as promising biomarkers for multiple diseases. TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 are reported to be associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and end stage renal disease in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM).

Material and methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of circulating TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 and to assess their potential as a blood-based biomarker for DKD in T1DM and T2DM patients.

Results:. The study included 124 participants: 66 patients with T1DM, 58 with T2DM and 20 healthy controls. The diabetic patients were classified according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). First group - eGFR ≥90ml/min/1.73 m2 (n=39), second group eGFR 89-60 ml/min/1.73m2 (n=45), and third group eGFR 59-45 ml/min/1.73m2 (n=40). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of was used to evaluate blood TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 expression. It was found that there were higher TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 in all diabetic patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 were higher in group with eGFR ≥90ml/min/1.73 m2 and gradually increased in the groups with eGFR89-60 ml/min/1.73m2 and eGFR 59-45 ml/min/1.73m2. TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 were less in T1DM, than T2DM in all study groups. Regression analysis revealed reverse associations between TGF- β1, VCAM-1 and eGFR (P<0.05). TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 correlated positively with albuminuria and negatively with renal function.

Conclusion: In discriminating overall patients from healthy subjects, ROC analysis revealed areas under the curve (AUCs) of 1,0 for TGF- β1 for T1DM and T2DM, VCAM-1 0,866 for T1DM, 0,923 for T2DM (P<0.001). The results suggested that blood-based TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 may serve as potential biomarkers for early detection of DKD.

Open access

Cristian Guja and Rucsandra Dănciulescu Miulescu

Open access

Adela-Gabriela Firănescu and Maria Moța

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), increasing the risk of progression of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active TB threefold, threatening the TB control, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess active and latent TB infection frequency in patients with DM.

Material and methods: There were enrolled in this study 503 adult DM patients. Active TB screening was performed through anamnestic data, clinical examination and chest X-ray and latent TB infection screening was evaluated using the tuberculin skin tests (TST).

Results: A number of 63 (12.5%) patients had type 1 DM and 440 (87.5%) had type 2 DM. Personal history of TB was present in 21 (4.2%) subjects, 5 (8.1%) with type 1 DM and 16 (3.6%) with type 2 DM. The TST was positive in 258 (51.5%) patients and 54 (10.7%) presented cough for more than two weeks at the time of examination. The chest X-ray revealed suggestive lesions for active TB in 4 (1%) subjects and lesions of inactive TB in 90 (22.4%) subjects.

Conclusions: TB screening must receive proper attention in patients with DM, being essential for diagnosis in those with nonspecific symptoms.

Open access

Novita Intan Arovah and Bernadeta Maria Wara Kushartanti

Abstract

Background and aims: This study investigate the effects of increases in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on several clinical parameters in Indonesian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Material and methods: This study used clinical and physical activity data of forty-two T2DM patients who completed a 6 month-free-living physical activity program, the Walking with Diabetes Study. Upon completion of the program, participants were categorised into a group with increases in MVPA (the MVPA+ group, n=24) or a group with steady/decreases in MVPA (the control group, n=18). High density lipoprotein, triglyceride, routine hematology profiles, blood pressure, body mass index, weight/hip ratio and self-reported MVPA, at baseline, 3 and 6 months were retrospectively analysed. Generalized estimating equation adjusted for age and sex were conducted to assess group and time effects on the clinical parameters.

Results: Hemoglobin (p <0.01), erythrocytes (p<0.05), hematocrits (p<0.001) and thrombocytes (p<0.05) were higher in the MVPA+ group. The 1h and 2h-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) increased in both groups across time (p<0.001). No changes between groups across time were found for other parameters.

Conclusions: Increases in MVPA improve several hematology parameters in T2DM patients, but it does not have protective effects in controlling systemic inflammation in T2DM patients.

Open access

Prashant Goel and Amorin R. Popa

Abstract

Background and aims: To assess the levels of total testosterone in the metabolic syndrome patients.

Material and Methods: We included ninety-six patients in our study, forty-nine with metabolic syndrome according to the definition of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and forty-seven as control. Anthropometric measurements were registered and blood samples were taken after an overnight fast.

Results: The mean values of different parameters showed significant differences between both groups. The total testosterone mean value was (338,97±91,2 ng/ml) substantially lower as compared to patients with metabolic syndrome to control group.

Conclusion: There is an inverse relationship between total testosterone and metabolic syndrome. Low total testosterone can be a predictor of rising incidence of metabolic syndrome.

Open access

Nessrine Samira Karaouzene, Hafida Merzouk, Amel Saidi Merzouk, Samira Bouanane, Lotfi Loudjedi and Sid Ahmed Merzouk

Abstract

Background and aims: Interaction between oxidative stress and inflammation has not been comprehensively investigated in the association obesity – diabetes - hypertension. Our aim was to investigate interrelations between inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in obese women with two complications (hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Material and Methods: 54 obese patients without complications, 46 diabetic patients with obesity, 48 hypertensive diabetic obese women, and 120 healthy controls were recruited from the department of nuclear medicine (Algeria). Inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were assayed by appropriate methods.

Results: Inflammatory markers were significantly higher in all obese groups compared to controls. Elevated pro-oxidants and decreased antioxidant markers were noted in obese women. These alterations were accentuated when obesity was associated with hypertension and diabetes. A positive interrelationship between inflammatory mediators and oxidative status, and a negative one with antioxidants were noted during obesity. Hypertension and diabetes enhanced these correlations. Leptin, C-reactive protein, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ion superoxide, peroxynitrite were found to be the best inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers that can predict diabetes and hypertension in obese women.

Conclusions: oxidative stress and inflammation were intimately interconnected in women obesity associated with diabetes and hypertension.

Open access

Cornelia Bala, Adriana Rusu, Mihaela Moise and Gabriela Roman

Abstract

Background: Basal-EDUC-RO Study evaluated the impact of structured education provided at the initiation of basal insulin therapy on glycaemic control in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).

Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, parallel group study (ACTRN12616001273471) which enrolled 711 patients initiated on insulin therapy with a basal insulin analogue. The subjects were randomized (1:1) to either structured education (structured education group; 353 patients) or standard education (control group; 358 patients) and followed for 6 months.

Results: The median HbA1c levels at 6 months after start of basal insulin were significantly lower in the structured education group than in the control group (7.2% vs. 7.4%, p <0.001). In the structured education group, 49.4% of subjects achieved HbA1c targets vs. 34.4% in the control group, p <0.001. Number of documented symptomatic hypoglycemic episodes (all and nocturnal) was lower in the intervention group (139 vs. 217 for all episodes and 13 vs. 26 for nocturnal hypoglycemia) but with no statistical significance. No effect of intervention was seen on body weight, but there was no weight gain in any of the groups at 6 months.

Conclusions: A structured diabetes education program delivered to patients with T2D started on a basal insulin analogue significantly improved glucose control at 6 months compared to a less intense education strategy. The positive effect was mainly seen on the percentage of patients who achieved individualized HbA1c pre-set targets, with a non-significant reduction in episodes of overall and nocturnal documented symptomatic hypoglycemia.

Open access

Inna Krynytska, Mariya Marushchak and Anastasiia Rutska

Abstract

Background and aims: Monosodium salt of glutamic acid (MSG) is one of the most common food additives. The aim of study was to assess, in gender-specific terms, how prolonged administration of MSG effects on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation and the apoptotic/necrotic processes in the population of rats circulating neutrophils.

Material and methods: Experimental studies were conducted on 32 mature white rats. MSG was administered intragastrical at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The analysis of cell samples to determine neutrophils with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signs of apoptosis\necrosis was evaluated with flow laser cytometry method. The total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was determined by monitoring the rate of conversion of L-arginine into citrulline. The total quantity of NO metabolites was assessed by evaluating of nitrite and nitrate ions.

Results: We found a significant increase in generation of ROS, intensification of nitroxydergic processes, an increase in the percentage of apoptotic neutrophils and no changes in the percentage of necrotic neutrophils.

Conclusions: We observed activation of oxidative and nitroxydergic processes in rats with prolonged administration of MSG, which initiate apoptosis. In gender-specific terms, a more pronounced changes were seen in male rats.

Open access

Moath Alqaraleh, Violet Kasabri, Sundus H. Al alawi and Nihad Al-Othman

Abstract

Background and aims: Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine collectively known as Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), can be closely associated with metabolic dysregulates and with insulin resistance. We aimed to explore the role of BCAAs as potential treatment option for diabetes.

Material and method: Bioassay the effect of BCAAs on MIN6 cell line on insulin secretion and pancreatic beta cells expansion, then were checked for inhibitory potential of pancreatic amylase, glucosidase and lipase as alternative approach for diabetes treatment.

Results: BCAAs significantly enhance insulin secretion parallel to L-alanine efficacy. Furthermore, BCAAs obtain a dose dependent β-cell proliferation similar to glucagon-like peptide-1. Moreover, these acids could restore the secretory function of MIN6 β-cell despite stressful gluco-lipo-toxicity; separately or combined. Moreover, BCAAs exerted a dose dependent dual inhibition of amylase, glucosidase and lipase.

Conclusions: Our current findings suggest that BCAAs supplementation may have a potential therapeutic effect against diabetes as insulin releasing agent and as specific inhibitors for both-amylase/α-amyloglucoside and lipase