E. Sesztáková, A. Königová, L. Molnár, M. Babják, P. Major, Š. Megyesi, Z. Vasilková and M. Várady
Our study describes changes in haematological parameters in wild ruminants with parasitic infection. Six European mouflons (Ovis musimon), six fallow deer (Dama dama) and six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were experimentally infected with the resistant strain of the model parasite 8000 L3 Haemonchus contortus. The blood samples were collected on Day 0, 16, 37, 58, 77, and 99 of the experiment. Mild anaemia was observed in mouflons and roe deer while red blood cells increased in red blood counts (total erythrocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin). As for the white blood cells count, leucopenia with neutrophilia and lymphopenia was recorded in mouflons, in the fallow deer and roe deer leucocytosis with neutropenia and lymphocytosis were observed. Changes in the dynamics of haematological parameters were statistically insignificant.
R. Kumar, A. D. Moudgil, A. Sharma, R. Sharma, R. Masand, R. D. Patil and R. K. Asrani
The necropsy of a leopard (Panthera pardus), succumbed to a chronic ailment exhibited a mixed parasitic gastroenteritis. Gross internal examination of carcass revealed the presence of round and tapeworms in the stomach and intestines with diffuse catarrhal and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The detailed examination of the intestinal content revealed the presence of Toxocara canis and Spirometra species eggs. Also, the gross morphological investigation of round and tapeworms approved the presence of both species. Histo-pathological examination showed sloughing of intestinal epithelium, hemorrhages, and ulcerative areas with the infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells admixed with mononuclear cells. Lungs revealed the accumulation of eosinophilic edematous fl uid in the alveolar spaces along with inflammatory cells. These parasites are pathogenic to precious wild felids and often pose a threat of zoonotic transmission due to spill-over infections. The present case study is an attempt to put on record a case of parasitic gastroenteritis in a captive leopard.
L. Garbin, J. I. Diaz, A. Morgenthaler, A. Millones, L. Kuba, D. Fuchs and G.T. Navone
Anisakids are usually acquired through the diet. Cormorant pellets are useful to detect both parasite larval stages, and prey items which could act as intermediate hosts in the environment. The current study provides information about the feeding habits of both birds and mammals, and the diversity of parasites circulating in the environment. The objective of the study was to identify Anisakidae larvae and prey items in pellets from the Imperial shag Phalacrocorax atriceps and the Red-legged cormorant P. gaimardi, suggesting possible parasite–prey associations. A total of 92 P. atriceps’ and 82 P. gaimardi’s pellets were collected from both Punta León, and Isla Elena bird colonies, respectively, during the period from 2006 to 2010. Pellets were preserved in ethanol and hard prey item remnants, and nematode larvae were studied using standard techniques. Prey item occurrence, nematode prevalence, and mean intensity were calculated. A correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the larvae-prey association. Contracaecum spp., Pseudoterranova spp,, Anisakis spp., Terranova spp., and Hysterothylacium spp. third-stage larvae (L3) were identifi ed in pellets. Pseudoterranova spp. and Anisakis spp. L3 predominated in the environment of Punta León, whereas Contracaecum spp. and Hysterothylacium spp. L3 predominated in the Puerto Deseado area. The highest larvae-prey association was that of Contracaecum spp. L3 with Engraulis anchoita, followed by with Odontestes sp. in P. atriceps’ pellets. Contracaecum spp. L3 were significantly related to both sprats, Sprattus fueguensis and Ramnogaster arcuatta, in P. gaimardi’s pellets. It was verifi ed that E. anchovy is the main gateway of Contracaecum spp. L3 in P. atriceps. Odonthestes sp. might act as an intermediate/paratenic host of Contracaecum spp. L3 in the area. Both sprats might play a role as intermediate/paratenic hosts of C. australe, being the main gateway into P. gaimardi in the area. Thus, pellet analysis can be postulated as a good tool for indicating parasite-host associations between anisakids, and the prey items which act as intermediate hosts.
M. R. Werneck, R. Velloso, P. B. Costa Das Chagas, H. Jerdy Leandro and R. Martins De Amorim
Pyelosomum cochlearLooss 1899 (Digenea: Pronocephalidae) is a parasite exclusive to sea turtles, having been described in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) in Egypt, the USA, Panama, Costa Rica and Brazil as well as the olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) in Brazil. The present note describes the first occurrence of P. cochlear in a hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) found on the coast of Brazil.
M. Levkut Jr., V. Revajová, M. Levkutová, E. Selecká, Z. Ševčíková, V. Karaffová and M. Levkut Sr.
The study examined subpopulations of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, spleen, and jejunum including morphology of that segment in broiler chicken farm after treatment with flubendazole (Flimabend) and natural extract from chestnut wood (Farmatan). A total of 24 forty-day-old Kalimero-Super Master hybrid chickens were divided into 4 groups (n=6): the Fli group received Flimabend per os, 100 mg/g suspension in 1.43 mg of active substance/kg body weight during 7 day of experiment, Far group received Farmatan per os at 0.2 % concentration for 6 hours per day during 5 day (experimental days – from 3 to 7); the Far+Fli group received a combination of doses administered in the same way as for the first two groups; and control –C group with no active substance administration. The results demonstrated mild increase of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, leucocyte common antigen CD45, IgM+ and IgA+ cells in peripheral blood after administration of Flimabend. Similarly, subpopulations of followed lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, IgM+) were increased in the jejunum after application of that drug. On the other hand, administration of Farmatan revealed opposite effect on determined immunocompetent cells what proves anti-inflammatory effect. Morphology of villi was also negatively influenced by administration of Flimabend. Administration of Farmatan suggests also its preventive administration in chickens. This tanin-containing drug as plant natural product may be used due to its antibacterial activity and as promising alternative to conventional drug with possible antihelminthic effect.
The striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Perciformis: Mullidae) has a high commercial value and therewithal is a common demersal fish of the Mediterranean Sea, therefore studying the helminth parasites of this fish is required. Anisakids nematodes are common parasites of animals including human causing economic losses and different parasitic diseases. During the present study, the nematode Dujardinascaris spp. (Anisakidae) was described from the body cavity and small intestine of Mullus surmuletus in the Alexandria, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt as new host and new geographical record. Forty-five (37.5%) fish out of (120) were found infected by the parasite. The morphological features of the collected nematode were investigated by both light and scanning electron microscopy. The study revealed that the specimens were characterized from other species of the genus by the presence of two large lateral pouches attached to each cephalic lip, the different large-sized papillae on the cephalic region and on the dorsal surface of the nematode cuticle.
S. Cavallero, R. A. El Sherif, A. Pizzarelli, A.A. El Fituri, M. El Showhdi, F. Benmosa and S. D’Amelio
The occurrence of zoonotic parasitic nematodes in Atlantic chub mackerels (Scomber colias syn. Scomber japonicus) from Libyan waters was investigated, using epizootiological estimations and molecular specific characterization of larvae. Nematodes belonging to Anisakis spp., the main etiological agent of anisakiasis in Mediterranean waters, and to Hysterothylacium spp. so far considered not pathogenic to humans, were detected. Prevalence values were generally high in visceral cavities (over 40 % for both parasites) while were low for Anisakis (around 1 %) and null for Hysterothylacium in muscles. Moreover, the level of infections was associated with seasons, a feature potentially useful to plan fishing captures and to elaborate risk mitigation strategies for anisakiasis. Species molecular identification performed on a subsample described the presence of Hysterothylacium aduncum as the predominant species, along with Anisakis pegreffii and the hybrids (A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto), thus posing a concrete zoonotic risk following the consumption of such fish species as a raw preparation.
C. Isaac, P. N. Turay, C. U. Inegbenosun, S. A. Ezekiel, H. O. Adamu and J. A. Ohiolei
Schoolchildren in primary schools are mostly at risk of acquiring soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infections due to their habits (geophagy, onychophagy and playing with barefoot). Profiling soil parasites on school playgrounds is expected to provide an insight to an array of parasites schoolchildren are constantly at risk of acquiring; and this information could guide on intervention programmes. Soil samples from sixteen primary school playgrounds in Edo State (South-South, Nigeria) were collected over a six-month period both in the dry (January, February and March) and wet (May, June and July) seasons in 2018 and early 2019. Samples were processed and analysed following standard parasitological procedures. Of the 576 soil samples collected, 318(55.2 %) were positive with one or more soil parasites. Generally, the predominant parasites recovered from the total number of soil samples collected were: Ascaris 127(22 %), Strongyloides 111(19.27 %) and hookworm 50(8.68 %). Ascaris was most preponderant in the dry season, while Strongyloides was the most occurring in the wet season. The mean differences in the parasite load for Ascaris and hookworm between dry and wet seasons were not significant; while for Strongyloides it was higher in the wet than dry season. These results could be a consequence of observed poor state of toilet/sanitary facilities as well as the lack or poor state of basic infrastructure like proper drainage and waste disposal systems in the host communities. There is therefore urgent need to interrupt the STHs transmission cycles in the environment and possibly in schoolchildren by instituting sustainable intervention programmes within schools located in STHs endemic regions like southern Nigeria.
Z. Hurníková, V. Čabanová, P. Karpjak, M. Kasenčák and M. Miterpáková
The presented clinical observation shows an atypical case of Angiostrongylus vasorum intraocular infection in an 18-month-old male beagle from north-eastern Slovakia. The dog presented with a motile worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. No ocular signs or symptoms of a systemic disease were observed. The faecal examination using Baermann´s technique and fl otation was negative. Diagnosis was established following surgical removal of the worm. The specimen was determined as an A. vasorum female based on morphological features and confirmed by means of PCR technique and sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, the presented manifestation is the first ocular case of angiostrongylosis with absence of typical symptoms or signs of the disease.
H. Stoyanova, E. Carretón and J. A. Montoya-Alonso
Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonotic and an emerging disease, expanding in Europe. In Bulgaria, the presence of the parasite has been described in many regions. However, canine heartworm has hardly been evaluated in the capital of the country and, therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of canine heartworm in Sofia. Eighty stray dogs from the city of Sofia and the metropolitan area were analysed for circulating D. immitis antigens. The prevalence was 31.25 %, being 34.7 % in the metropolitan area and 25.8 % in the city of Sofia. The current results are among the highest reported in the country. This could be due to the lack of prophylactic measures against infection in these dogs, but also to the spread of D. immitis into non-endemic countries. Stray dogs may act as an important reservoir of heartworm being a risk for client-owned animals and for the development of pulmonary dirofilariosis in inhabitants. The results show the need to establish further epidemiological studies and prophylactic campaigns for stray and client-owned animals, as well as to create awareness campaigns about the severity and importance of this disease for both animals and humans.