The 21st Century labour market is changing fast with unprecedented acceleration. Training in the field of sociology follows the pattern of education which is a process of leading out of ignorance and bringing one up to another plain, a higher one, within a societal context. Its organisation and curricular should be done within the frame work of the general society and life. It ought to follow the trend of the time. This article discusses the discipline of sociology, its concept and teaching approach from the ambiance of integrating 21st century skills into it. Using the qualitative method, the article examines the study of sociology in the light of the 21st Century, and reveals that students will be confronted with the effects social institutions, globalization, and technological advancement have on education in general. In responding to this challenge, the article reveals that sociology, through studies and statistical research across societies, will be able to establish that the more technical skills and knowledge one gains, the easier it is to move up to the upper class in the society (Max Weber). As a study of social life, sociology adapts and allows its fields to be re-structured to meet up with the demands of the “ever-changing” social life. Since the world in the 21st century has experienced technological and social developments and challenges, which have many impacts on the lives of individuals living in it, the teaching of sociology has to be abreast with the demands of the current century.
Eric Anane and Jephtar Adu-Mensah
This paper explored the scoring and grading practices of teachers in basic schools. The study sought to understand the various factors teachers take into account when scoring students’ responses to tasks in the classroom. The stratified sampling procedure was used to select 278 primary and junior high school teachers from whom data were collected for the study. In the descriptive analysis, the results revealed that teachers considered students’ behaviour such as punctuality, interest in subject and neatness of work presented, and number of questions attempted by a student, and awarded marks when grading. These academic and non-academic factors considered by teachers in this study during scoring and grading are consistent with the literature. In independent samples t-test analyses, primary school teachers did not differ significantly from their counterparts in the junior high schools in terms of factors they considered during the scoring and grading of students’ responses to tasks in the classroom. This study adds a circumstantial data to the existing debate on teacher classroom assessment practices.
This paper synthesizes interrelated postulations from the systemic conflict and intergroup conflict theorizations to glean the societal conflict conceptual framework. The paper employs this conceptual framework to appraise the validity of the societal characterization of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict during the peace diplomacy era. Accordingly, the analysis uses the ‘structured, focused comparison’ qualitative method to investigate attitudinal and behavioral aspects of five cases of intercommunal violence within the Palestinian-Israeli context. The observed cumulative evidence indicates that the unresolved conflict has been exhibiting the conceptual properties of societal conflict throughout more than 25 years since the introduction of the Middle East peace process in 1991. Overall, the study explores the social, psychological, and political aspects of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, accentuates the societal underpinnings of intercommunal violence, and provides basis for perceiving the limited success of peace diplomacy.
Abílio Oliveira, Sérgio Moro and Pedro Torres
We are living in a time of huge competitiveness, where many institutions fight hard for their survival. Unemployment, exclusion, xenophobia, poverty and disrespect towards nature and our peers are causing unbearable impact to humanity. This situation is challenging us to retrieve and keep alive the true values, without any distinction of cultures, religions and ways of thinking. Only this way we can contribute to a fairer, inclusive and better society. A corporation can contribute to the employees' well-being, personal and professional fulfillment. The present study is focused in the employee turnover and how it is affected by the internal branding and the psychological contract, in a company of informatic services – in which we mainly considered its organization and human resources. So, we aimed to contribute to the understanding of: internal branding and psychological contract, and their interrelation; effects of internal branding and psychological contract in employees; the turnover (common in this company of informatics services). A questionnaire was developed to measure the internal branding and employees' psychological contract. We used several statistical techniques to analyze the data, namely, descriptive statistics analysis, factorial analysis in principal components, comparison of means and correlations among the resulting dimensions. Findings reveal low values for the internal branding and psychological contract, although, men feel slightly more satisfied with their situation than women. A positive association was found between the internal branding and the psychological contract, admitted as a possible cause of turnover. Anyway, results denote an insufficient concern of the company towards its human resources.
Fatos Ukaj and Husnija Bibuljica
Based on observation, enterprises are an economic organization established to make a profit. On the other hand, marketers are responsible for ensuring customer’s satisfaction. This is done firstly by increasing the growth of sales which will bring good business results. To reconcile these two approaches, we have to distinguish what entrepreneurs that run SMEs do. The environment has a significant influence on the development of SMEs. Furthermore, we consider the Legal issues and Legislation as the main factor that will let SMEs satisfy customer needs and generate profits. Also, we conducted field research where we used survey questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. Based on the findings of this study, we drew out conclusions and recommendations that will be useful for the future treatment of SMEs, and as a real force of the economic development of a country. All this, therefore, should be based on marketing concept requirements and appropriate legislation as support and insurance for investments made.
Cheryl Marie Cordeiro and Geir Sogn-Grundvåg
Due to the increasing complexity of the global development challenges that need solving, the past thirty years have seen interdisciplinary research (IDR) and university-industry collaboration developing into its own subject of research. While there have been numerous studies on defining and evaluating IDR, what remains under-researched is a unifying or integral perspective in IDR theoretical framing and conceptualisation much due to the nature of the multiple disciplines that constitute IDR. This study takes an integral systems theory perspective in address of the knowledge-gap in IDR, using the example of the project CATCH, a capture-based aquaculture research project funded by the Research Council of Norway and industry partners, for improved Norwegian cod products to local and global markets. The purpose of this study is to investigate and uncover the management strategies of the project CATCH, with the goal of illustrating how elements of such a management strategy can be mapped unto a four-quadrant integral systems theory model towards a unified perspective of an IDR project. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has projected a 20% growth in global fish production and consumption by 2030. CATCH, which is situated in the field of fisheries and aquaculture research, makes for a timely and interesting example of how an inherently IDR project is managed and executed by multiple stakeholders from academic institutions as well as industry partners. The contribution of this study is twofold, (i) working towards the consolidation of the theoretical foundations of IDR, and (ii) developing empirical insights into the management processes and strategy of an IDR project.
The increasing demand of users for quick and qualitative statistics, have increased the focus of statisticians from different countries to develop strategies, produce systems, compile statistical methods for the use of administrative sources as primary source. An important issue of official statistics is the reduction of the response burden from enterprises. Administrative sources are frequent in time, have wide scope coverage, are fast in terms of deadlines, but in content they carry suspicious values. In the case of Quarterly Survey these suspicious values affect the quarterly growth rate analysis. In Short Term Statistics cases where the value between the quarters is not accurate give a wrong picture of the development. In the Structural Survey, an annual net sale gives a wrong picture of the structure of the economy. Sources used for this paper are Value Added Tax and Quarterly Survey of Enterprises. The paper tries to identify the different patterns of the VAT in Albania by analysing two years VAT data, 2016-2017 and propose the editing method for correcting them. As the focus is the use of VAT in Short Term Statistics, the patterns are identified in the panel data created by linking with the same ID code the businesses on both sources. Various methods have been used from other countries’ statistics for the editing of these suspicions values. The experience of these countries is studied in orded to be used in Albania as well. This process will reduce the time for processing VAT file, will be used in effective way for quarterly business survey or structure business survey purposes and will increase the quality of statistical procces and product by using effectively the VAT file.
Cordelia Onyinyechi Omodero
The study assesses the impact of government general spending on human development in Nigeria from 2003 to 2017. The purpose is to determine the response of human development index (HDI) to recurrent and capital government expenditure. In order to achieve this objective, the multiple linear regression model linking the study variables was applied while Ordinary Lease Squares method was used to analyze the model. The results indicate that government’s capital expenditure and inflation have insignificant negative influence on HDI, corruption does not have any impact on HDI but government recurrent expenditure has strong and significant positive impact on HDI. The study concludes that resources on recurrent expenses should be reduced while more money should be invested in capital projects for human capital development in Nigeria.
Gazmend Krasniqi and Kristaq Filipi
Recently, not only the Internet and mobile devices are changing our daily life but also the usage of national biometric card for every government electronic services. Beside citizen authentication these electronic services require users to encrypt and digitally sign their data or documents. Therefore, biometric cards are used as processing devices for cryptographic applications, whereby there are a lot of security aspects required for secure communication, authentication and encryption among them. Those aspects will be tested in different environments, platforms, devices, PCs, mobile devices and smartcards. This paper compares those two processing systems, Match off Card vs. Match on Card, and their efficiency of encryption and signatures on the data used. How different parameters, time and size of test vectors impacts the process and the role they play on the overall system. The derived results will serve us as a guide for using one processing system in certain environment, minding the efficiency of the data.