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Jerzy Rubach and Tomasz Łuszczek

Abstract

This paper is a report on the phonological research done in the past two years investigating Podhale Goralian. The data are drawn from our informants in Dzianisz.

The paper establishes the system of surface contrasts in Goralian and identifies instances of complementary distribution. It is claimed that the renowned Podhale Archaism is no longer represented by the vowel [i]. Rather, the vowel has retracted to the central vowel [ɨ]. The original [ɨ], on the other hand, has lowered and fronted and is now best regarded as tense [e]. These transitions of vowels pose challenges for a phonological analysis. A sample of such analysis (Final Tensing) is shown in the framework of Optimality Theory.

Open access

Pamela Faber and Melania Cabezas-García

Abstract

Understanding specialized discourse requires the identification and activation of knowledge structures underlying the text. The expansion and enhancement of knowledge is thus an important part of the specialized translation process (Faber 2015). This paper explores how the analysis of terminological meaning can be addressed from the perspective of Frame-Based Terminology (FBT) (Faber 2012, 2015), a cognitive approach to domain-specific language, which directly links specialized knowledge representation to cognitive linguistics and cognitive semantics. In this study, context expansion was explored in a three-stage procedure: from single terms to multi-word terms, from multi-word terms to phrases, and from phrases to frames. Our results showed that this approach provides valuable insights into the identification of the knowledge structures underlying specialized texts.

Open access

Paula Orzechowska, Janina Mołczanow and Michał Jankowski

Abstract

This paper investigates the interplay between the metrical structure and phonotactic complexity in English, a language with lexical stress and an elaborate inventory of consonant clusters. The analysis of a dictionary- and corpus-based list of polysyllabic words leads to two major observations. First, there is a tendency for onsetful syllables to attract stress, and for onsetless syllables to repel it. Second, the stressed syllable embraces a greater array of consonant clusters than unstressed syllables. Moreover, the farther form the main stress, the less likely the unstressed syllable is to contain a complex onset. This finding indicates that the ability of a position to license complex onsets is related to its distance from the prosodic head.

Open access

Poster, Poster on the Wall, Do you Really Mean It All?

Decoding Visual Metaphor ‘Global Warming’ in Public Awareness Campaigns

Marina Platonova

Abstract

The tendency to create messages using the elements belonging to different semiotic systems shifts our perception of a communicative act, contributing to the establishment of multimodal and intersemiotic communication practice.

A visual metaphor is seen as one of the instances of a multimodal and intersemiotic message, which generates a text that is revealed gradually, uncovering numerous layers of meaning encoded within a metaphor and within visual, linguistic, and spatial settings it is placed in.

The paper sets out to explore the notion of a visual metaphor and focuses on the application of the visual metaphor ‘global warming’ on posters created for the needs of public awareness campaigns, investigating simultaneous manifestation of iconic and metaphorical mappings in the given visual metaphor.

Open access

Izabela Grabarczyk

Abstract

In any migratory context individuals are faced with several challenges as a result of having to live in a different geographical location, function in a different cultural setting and use a different language. The migrants’ use of language plays a crucial role in mediation of their identity, especially in the domain of pronunciation (Kobialka 2016). When non-native users of language adapt their speech to resemble that of the host community, it may suggest their strong identification with the target community (Hammer and Dewaele 2015). This papers focuses on the pronunciation patterns among Polish adult migrants living in the west of Ireland. The aim of the study is to investigate the link between positive attitudes of the migrant community towards Ireland, Irish culture and community, their acculturation strategies and language identity, and the tendency to use one of the most characteristic features of Irish English – slit-t. The theoretical framework includes acculturation theory (Berry 2005), social identity theory (Tajfel and turner 1987) and language identity (Block 2007). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of data indicates a certain correlation between the use of Irish English slit-t and the participants’ strategies of acculturation, identity and attitudes to the host community.

Open access

Francisco J. Álvarez-Gil

Abstract

This paper analyses the adverbs certainly and generally as stancetaking markers. These adverbial devices are said to show authorial stance and to communicate the author’s commitment or detachment towards the information presented, and so they are classified as epistemic adverbs (Alonso-Almeida 2015). For this study, I have selected a corpus of history texts from the Modern English period (1700-1900), as compiled in The Corpus of History English Texts (Crespo and Moskowich 2015), on the basis of which the two evidential adverbs are examined using computer corpus tools, although manual inspection is also employed to assess the meaning of the items in context. The findings suggest that, in this type of scientific articles, the two adverbs are used with differing pragmatic functions, in the case of certainly it functions mostly as a booster and, in the specific case of generally, its use seems to primarily suggest a hedging purpose (Hyland 2005a).

Open access

Agata Savary, Silvio Ricardo Cordeiro, Timm Lichte, Carlos Ramisch, Uxoa Iñurrieta and Voula Giouli

Abstract

Multiword expressions can have both idiomatic and literal occurrences. For instance pulling strings can be understood either as making use of one’s influence, or literally. Distinguishing these two cases has been addressed in linguistics and psycholinguistics studies, and is also considered one of the major challenges in MWE processing. We suggest that literal occurrences should be considered in both semantic and syntactic terms, which motivates their study in a treebank. We propose heuristics to automatically pre-identify candidate sentences that might contain literal occurrences of verbal VMWEs, and we apply them to existing treebanks in five typologically different languages: Basque, German, Greek, Polish and Portuguese. We also perform a linguistic study of the literal occurrences extracted by the different heuristics. The results suggest that literal occurrences constitute a rare phenomenon. We also identify some properties that may distinguish them from their idiomatic counterparts. This article is a largely extended version of Savary and Cordeiro (2018).

Open access

Koji Arikawa

Abstract

Graph theory, which quantitatively measures the precise structure and complexity of any network, uncovers an optimal force balance in sentential graphs generated by the computational procedures of human natural language (CHL). It provides an alternative way to evaluate grammaticality by calculating ‘feature potential’ of nodes and ‘feature current’ along edges. An optimal force balance becomes visible by expressing ‘feature current’ through different point sizes of lines. Graph theory provides insights into syntax and contradicts Chomsky’s current proposal to discard tree notations. We propose an error minimization hypothesis for CHL: a good sentential network possesses an error-free self-organized force balance. CHL minimizes errors by (a) converting bottom-up flow (structure building) to top-down flow (parsing), (b) removing head projection edges, (c) preserving edges related to feature checking, (d) deleting DPmovement trajectories headed by an intermediate copy, (e) ensuring that covert wh-movement trajectories have infinitesimally small currents and conserving flow directions, and (f) robustly remedying a gap in wh-loop by using infinitesimally inexpensive wh-internally-merged (wh- IM) edge with the original flow direction. The CHL compels the sensorimotor (SM) interface to ground nodes so that Kirchhoff’s current law (a fundamental balance law) is satisfied. Internal merges are built-in grounding operations at the CHL–SM interface that generate loops and optimal force balance in sentential networks.

Open access

Pavel Vondřička

Abstract

The paper proposes design of a generic database for multiword expressions (MWE), based on the requirements for implementation of the lexicon of Czech MWEs. The lexicon is aimed at different goals concerning lexicography, teaching Czech as a foreign language, and theoretical issues of MWEs as entities standing between lexicon and grammar, as well as for NLP tasks such as tagging and parsing, identification and search of MWEs, or word sense and semantic disambiguation. The database is designed to account for flexibility in morphology and word order, syntactic and lexical variants and even creatively used fragments. Current state of implementation is presented together with some emerging issues, problems and solutions.