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Open access

Anna Turska-Szybka, Urszula Kaczmarek, Dariusz Gozdowski, Jacek Tomczyk and Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk

Abstract

The prevalence of early childhood caries and its level varies. The present study was to establish the trends in dental caries and the impact of behavioural changes on the prevalence of caries in three-yearolds in Poland within a fifteen-year period. The results of a cross sectional survey carried out on 3439 three-year-olds in 2002, 2009, and 2017 using WHO criteria for dental caries (dmft, dmft=0, dmft≥4) and the results of a questionnaire filled by their parents with data on sociodemographics, oral hygiene and dietary habits, especially their sugar intake, were assessed. The dmft/dmfs index is applied to the primary dentition and is expressed as the total number of teeth/surfaces that are decayed, missing, or filled. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to assess the fraction changes in time. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the changes in dmft trends and the correlations between behavioural changes, awareness levels, and the prevalence of caries. Within the fifteen-year period minimal changes in the prevalence of early childhood caries (15% down), dmft≥4 (11.4% down) and a lower dmft (36% down) were accompanied by a better parent awareness about the causes of caries and better oral hygiene routines. Sugary beverages were no longer drank at least once a day, however sweetened milk, cake, doughnuts, and sweet rolls were consumed more often. Being female, living in an urban area, having parents more aware about caries, consuming sugary beverages less frequently, brushing teeth twice a day, and using a fluoride toothpaste promoted lower early childhood caries. Gradually healthier teeth are linked to an increased awareness of the parents and healthier routines. A too frequent exposure to sugar promotes early childhood caries. Should the changes of dietary habits be insufficient, brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste becomes crucial.

Open access

Alicja Krzyżaniak, Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Małgorzata Krzywińska- Wiewiorowska, Aldona Siwińska and Maria Kaczmarek

Abstract

New category for elevated blood pressure introduced and described by JNC-7 for adults and adopted by the 2004 Working Group for children and adolescents stands for a pre-sign to hypertension. The ongoing rise in prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents demands their regular screening. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of elevated BP in Polish adolescents and explain the role of sex, age and body weight status as potent risk factors for this condition. A population-based cross-sectional survey was carried out on a sample of 4,941 students (2,451 boys and 2,490 girls) aged 10-18, participants in the ADOPOLNOR study. Body height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Blood pressure was measured twice on each visit on the right arm using a fully calibrated TECH MED TM-Z mercury gauge sphygmomanometer with sets of exchangeable cuffs and a clinical stethoscope. The blood pressure classification was determined using the surveillance method. The depended outcome variable was the elevated BP compared to normal BP for systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and combined SBP and/or DBP. Explanatory variables included demographic characteristics, sex and age, and weight status. Two-way ANCOVA, Chi-square Pearson correlation, and multivariate logistic regression analysis (MLRA) were performed using the STATISTICA 13.1 data analysis software system; p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant (StatSoft Inc. Tulsa, OK, USA). A clear gender pattern was found in prevalence of elevated BP with girls being more likely than boys to have elevated BP (4.9%, 5.3% and 7.4% for SBP, DBP and combined SBP and/or DBP in girls vs 3.5%, 3.5% and 5.9% in boys). The proportion of both genders with elevated BP gradually increased with age with 4.8% (SBP), 2.8% (DBP) and 5.8% (SBP and/or DBP), and 5.1%, 6.4% and 8.4% in early and late adolescence, respectively. Fifteen percent of obese adolescents had elevated SBP, 14.3% elevated DBP and 17.8% had elevated either SBP and/or DBP combined. At multivariate approach, the adjusted odds ratio for predictors of elevated BP revealed sex, age and weight status for SBP and SBP and/or DPB combined. Age and weight status were predictive for elevated DBP. Weight status (BMI) showed the highest predictive potential of elevated BP for both genders. The likelihood of developing elevated BP increased at least twice with each BMI category increase. Thus, overweight and obese adolescents were twice (overweight) and 4 to 5 times (obese) more likely than their normal weight counterparts in developing elevated BP. The study results confirmed predictive potential of sex, age, and weight status in developing elevated BP in adolescents. The highest odds of the weight status indicate that it is the strongest confounder of elevated BP condition.

Open access

M Adel Bakir, Kholoud Hammad and Khaled Bagdadi

Abstract

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important group of components responsible of high incidence of cardio-vascular disease (CVD) and stroke among the type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) patients. Studies on the prevalence of the MetS and its components among DM patients are limited in developing countries and such studies never been done in Syria before. The objectives of current study were two-folds: (a) to investigate the prevalence of MetS in a group of DM Syrian patients as defined by NCEP-ATP III and IDF diagnostic criteria, and (b) to identify the individual MetS associated risk factors components in the studied group. A cross-sectional study carried out at one of the diabetic clinics of the health ministry in Damascus, Syria between 2016–2017. A random sample of 424 patients (209 males, 215 females) DM patients aged 40–79 years were participated in this study. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) were determined. The overall prevalence of the MetS was 67% and 69.3% according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria, respectively. The prevalence was higher in females and increased with age. According to NCEP/ATP III criteria and for the overall group, high TG was the most prevalent component of the MetS. However, when an IDF criterion was applied, central obesity was the commonest component in the overall group. According to both diagnostic criteria, hypertension was significantly higher in males while central obesity was dominated in females (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the results revealed high prevalence of the MetS in DM Syrian patients using both diagnostic criteria but slightly higher with IDF criteria. Especial care, health awareness, life style modifications, and proper medications should be directed towards controlling the risk factors components of this syndrome.

Open access

Tanaya Kundu Chowdhury and Subrata K. Roy

Abstract

Low haemoglobin level or anaemia is a health problem worldwide especially in developing countries like India. Anaemia is generally higher among indigenous groups compared to general population globally and females are specifically more prone to anaemia. However, studies are inadequate on indigenous groups of India. The aims of the study are to determine the prevalence of anaemia among the female Oraons of North 24 Parganas and to study the association between anaemia and concomitants like socio-demographic and food habit variables. Data have been collected on demographic, socio-economic and food habit variables using well-tested questionnaire from 309 Oraon females living in rural and urban areas of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal. Haemoglobin data were collected using standard instrument and technique. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the data using SPSS version 16.0. Females of rural and urban areas were mostly married and non-literate, employed as labourers and had sedentary occupations. Majority of them consume fruits and vegetables but less animal protein and dairy product. Around 80% of the females were anaemic, irrespective of their habitat, socio-economic status and food habits. Anaemic status was associated with insufficient intake of animal protein, which is significantly associated with the anaemia status of the females in the present study.

Open access

Piotr Sękowski, Elżbieta Żądzińska, Elżbieta Pawłowska, Aneta Sitek and Bogusław Antoszewski

Abstract

Tooth size, being the effect of interaction of genetic and prenatal factors, could be of importance in interpreting the multifactor causes of cleft lip/palate. Publications indicating decreased tooth parameters, no dental differences, or larger dimensions of teeth in cleft lip/palate patients. Researchers report mostly mesiodistal (MD) measurements of maxillary (affected) teeth. There is a lack of data for buccolingual (BL) diameters. Both MD and BL parameters have influence on the planning and performance of orthodontic treatment. The aim of this paper was to assess differences in mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions in Polish children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in comparison to patients without oral clefts. A total of 1883 permanent teeth, 1182 teeth of UCLP patients and 701 teeth of healthy participants were analyzed. Tooth diameters were performed using an orthodontic cast of dentition with a digital odontometer. The greatest anomalies were found in both maxillary canines and consisted of their reduced mesiodistal dimension and increased buccolingual dimension, resulting in a pathologically high crown shape index (BL/MD). Conclusion can be drawn that unilateral cleft lip and palate is a condition that causes morphological disturbances of varying severity in most mandibular and maxillary teeth both on the cleft and non-cleft sides.

Open access

Sylvia Kirchengast

Abstract

Asymmetry of bilateral anatomical structures is widely found in nature. Fluctuating asymmetry, i.e. mostly tiny random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilateral structures, is mainly interpreted within the framework of developmental instability. This interpretation is mainly due to the fact, that higher fluctuating asymmetry is often found in association with various pathological conditions but also from increased stress during somatic development. Directional asymmetry, in contrast, describes a distinct pattern of bilateral variation in a group of individuals, characterized by the tendency to find the larger side mainly at the same side for all individuals. This kind of asymmetry is mostly caused by behavioral lateralization. Somatic stress during development affect not only asymmetry patterns, it is has also an adverse effect on somatic growth. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis, that increased asymmetry is associated with decreased body height as well as postcranial length and robustness dimensions. The association patterns between fluctuating as well as directional asymmetry and parameters of somatic growth and robustness are analyzed among 236 !Kung San and 248 Kavango people of Namibia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. Fluctuating asymmetry was determined by ear length and ear breadth. Directional asymmetry was determined by hand length and hand breadth dimensions. Fluctuating as well as directional asymmetry correlated significantly negatively with body height and length dimensions, the correlations however, were weak. The results are interpreted as a corroboration of the theory that developmental stress may increase fluctuating asymmetry but on the other hand may decrease body size.

Open access

Walter King Yan Ho, Md. Dilsad Ahmed, Chi Ian Leong, Patrick Chan, Rudolph Leon Van Niekerk, Fan Huang, Jessica Chen, Nikon Chan, João Silva and Patrick Ip

Abstract

The concomitant risk of physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle development causing various non-communicable diseases is recognized worldwide. Therefore, development of strategies to form a concrete public health policy overcoming this problem is most important. This study observed the distribution and changes of Body Mass Index (BMI) over six years among boys and girls. Data on children height and weight and their BMI were collected. A total of 5369 (3368 male and 2001 female) children were recruited from 10 schools in Macao. The children were 6 years old in 2008 and turned 11 in 2013. Statistical analyses involved descriptive statistics, t-test, and a Chi-squared test. The findings indicated greater BMI among males than females across all age at the 0.05 level of significance, and the ages of 8 and 9 seemed to be a sensitive period for an increase in overweight and obesity. The results indicate the need to have focused strategies and structured interventions for males at the critical ages from 8 to 9 years.

Open access

Marek Kociuba, Zofia Ignasiak, Anna Sebastjan, Katarzyna Kochan, Ireneusz Cichy, Andrzej Dudkowski, Marcin Ściślak and Sławomir Kozieł

Abstract

It is believed that the second to fourth finger length ratio is an indirect indicator of fetal testosterone levels. It is pointed out that there is a relationship between the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio and the body structure in women and men. Studies on the relationship between body composition and 2D:4D finger length among military students have not been carried out so far. The work aims to determine the dependence of body composition and the quotient of the 2nd and 4th fingers length of military students. The research material has been gathered as a result of examinations of women and men studying military subjects. The study involved 55 women and 65 men. The tests included anthropometric measurements (body height, body weight, length of the second and the fourth fingers) and body composition measurements. As a result of the tests, no dimorphic differentiations in the digit length ratio (2D:4D) was indicated. The BMI, muscle mass, lean body mass and water in the body demonstrated higher values in men than in women. However, the fat content in men was low. It was found that the relationship exists between muscle mass, lean mass and total water content in the body and the 2D:4D finger length ratio in the left hand in women. A higher level of fetal testosterone, characterized by lower values of the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio, may be associated with a higher content of muscle mass, lean body mass and water in the body of adult women leading a similar lifestyle.

Open access

Justyna Karkus

Abstract

Manifestations of periodontitis, the destructive form of periodontal disease affecting the alveolar bone, are often clearly recognizable in archaeological human remains. Analysis of this disease allows to obtain data not only about biological condition but also diet and nutrition of past populations. The objective of this paper was to asses periodontitis in the Polish urban population of Brześć Kujawski during Medieval – Modern transition (14th–17th centuries AD). An attempt was also made to explain the relationship between atrophy of alveolar bones and the type of diet. Lowering of alveolar crests was diagnosed based on measurements of the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar crest edge (CEJ– AC) distance and morphology of the alveolar edge. In studied population periodontitis affected 77.1% of individuals and 41.4% of all alveoli. Frequency, intensity and severity of the disease was higher in males and increased with the individual’s age. Severity of alveolar destruction was associated with dental calculus accumulation. It seems that a high prevalence of the disease may be, among others, result of carbohydrate-rich diet and fragmented food. Sex differences could be related to differences in diet (especially in protein intake) and hormone levels or lack of oral hygiene in part of the population.

Open access

Katarzyna Maciałczyk-Paprocka, Joanna Dudzińska, Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska and Alicja Krzyżaniak

Abstract

Postural defects including scoliotic posture constitute one of the most frequently observed health problems in school-aged children. The incidence of this multifactorial condition has been observed to increase recently. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of scoliotic posture in primary and secondary school students living in a large city. The sample consisted of 1,325 boys and 1,355 girls, aged 6 to 18, living in the city of Poznań. Their postures were assessed through skilled visual inspection method based on the criteria delineated by Wiktor Dega. Additionally, measurements of scoliotic deformities were taken using the Bunnell’s scoliometer. It was found that the incidence of scoliosis assessed on the basis of Dega’s postural defect chart amounted in total to 14.6% in boys and 17% in girls. No substantial differences between boys and girls in particular age categories were found. Scoliometer examination appeared to be a more accurate method for screening scoliosis and revealed higher incidence of this condition in total and both in boys and girls as compared to the visual screening method. The contractures which may lead to scoliotic posture appeared most frequently in the knee joints, both in boys and in girls. The incidence of lateral spinal curvatures was related to age and increased with age. Scoliometer proved to be a more effective tool in detecting lateral spinal curvatures and should be more widely used in school healthcare.