Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 941 items for :

  • Biochemistry x
Clear All
Open access

Irena Kostovska, Tosheska Trajkovska, Sonja Topuzovska, Svetlana Cekovska, Goce Spasovski, Ognen Kostovski and Danica Labudovic

Summary

Background

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Progressive damage and decline in the number of podocytes often occur in the early stages of DN. Thus, nephrin as a podocyte-specific protein may be regarded as a potential biomarker of early detection of DN. The aim of this study is to determine whether urinary nephrin is an earlier marker in DN than microalbuminuria and to test the significance of urinary nephrin as a marker for early detection of DN.

Methods

Our cross-sectional study included 90 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 30 patients with diagnosed DN and 60 patients without diagnosed DN. As a control group, we used 30 healthy subjects. All patients with T2DM were classified into three subgroups according to urinary microalbumin/creatinine ratio (UMCR): normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuric patients. Nephrin in urine was measured by immunoenzyme assay, microalbumin with turbidimetric and creatinine with the photometric method. In blood sera, we measured a few standard biochemical parameters.

Results

Nephrinuria was found to be present in 100% of patients with T2DM and macroalbuminuria, in 88% with microalbuminuria, as well as 82% of patients with T2DM and normoalbuminuria. A concentration of urinary nephrin was significantly increased in all groups of subjects with T2DM compared to the control group (p<0.05). Nephrinuria correlated statistically negative with eGFR (r=-0.54). ROC analysis showed that nephrin has a total predicted probability of 96% in patients with DN.

Conclusions

Urinary nephrin is earlier, more specific and sensitive marker than microalbumin in early detection of DN.

Open access

Alenka Franko, Katja Goricar, Viljem Kovac, Metoda Dodic-Fikfak and Vita Dolzan

Summary

Background

This study aimed to investigate the association between NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms and the risk of developing pleural plaques, asbestosis, and malignant mesothelioma (MM), and to study the influence of the interactions between polymorphisms and asbestos exposure on the risk of developing these diseases.

Methods

The case-control study included 416 subjects with pleural plaques, 160 patients with asbestosis, 154 subjects with MM and 149 subjects with no asbestos disease. The NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms were determined using real-time PCR-based methods. In the statistical analysis, standard descriptive statistics was followed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression modelling.

Results

Asbestos exposure (medium and high vs low) was associated with the risk for each studied asbestos-related disease. An increased risk of pleural plaques was found for CARD8 rs2043211 AT + TT genotypes (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01–2.16, p = 0.042). When the analysis was performed for MM patients as cases, and pleural plaques patients as controls, a decreased MM risk was observed for carriers of CARD8 rs2043211 TT genotype (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.27–1.00, p = 0.049). The interactions between NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 genotypes did not influence the risk of any asbestos-related disease. However, when testing interactions with asbestos exposure, a decreased risk of asbestosis was found for NLRP3 CA+AA genotypes (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.60, p = 0.014).

Conclusions

The results of our study suggest that NLRP3 and CARD8 polymorphisms could affect the risk of asbestos-related diseases.

Open access

Lütfiye Tutkun, Servet Birgin İritaş, Serdar Deniz, Özgür Öztan, Sedat Abuşoğlu, Ali Ünlü, Vugar Ali Türksoy and Sultan Pınar Çetintepe

Summary

Background

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known biomarkers of systemic inflammation that have been associated with many diseases in the past. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between impaired lung functions and the levels of these biomarkers in DMAc exposed people.

Methods

101 non-exposed control subjects (Group 1) and 109 DMAc-exposed workers from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry were included in the study. In the next step, the exposed group was divided into two groups according to the level of exposure (Group 2 and 3). DMAc, TNF-α, IL-6, creatinine, ALT, AST, GFR and standard spirometry measurements were carried out in all subjects.

Results

When compared to the control group, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly high compatible with the increase of DMAc levels, in the exposed groups. Urinary DMAc Levels were 0.06 mg/L in the control group. This level is significantly low when compared to exposed and severely exposed group (2.43 mg/L and 3.17 mg/L). TNF-α levels were 56.86 pg/mL, 145.52 pg/mL and 230.52 pg/mL in control, exposed and severely exposed groups. IL-6 levels were found to be 38.08 pg/mL, 89.19 pg/mL and 116 pg/mL for control, exposed and severely exposed groups, respectively. Similarly, the FEV1/FVC ratio decreased especially in the severely exposed group (p 0.001).

Conclusions

In our study, results have revealed that TNF-and IL-6 levels are promising biomarkers in the early diagnosis of lung function impairment in inhalational DMAc exposure.

Open access

Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Rafał Buryta and Robert Nowak

Summary

Background

During karate fight muscles work at a very high intensity, and their contractions are extremely strong. The movement pattern contains a great number of feints, dodges, frequent changes in movements’ tempo and direction, hits and kicks, all of which is highly stressful for athlete’s organism, including the immune system.

Methods

T lymphocyte subsets’ distribution and selected cytokines in peripheral blood of three elite karate athletes aged 30 years old (range 21–31 years) with minimum 15 years of training experience were analysed in two experiments: at the beginning of the preparatory phase (a progressive test until exhaustion; an analysis of immune system’s selected parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness measures, including VO2max, VE, AT, MVV, MET, Rf), and during the start-up period (Karate Championships; an analysis of selected parameters of the immune system).

Results

Maximal effort caused an increase in total lymphocyte percentage (p<0.05). A decrease in Th cells in recovery (p<0.05 compared to post-exercise), and an increase in Th naïve cells in recovery (p<0.05) were observed. A significant increase in CD8+ central memory cells (p<0.05) was found only after the progressive test, and no changes in both central and effector memory subsets of CD4+ cells during the first experiment. An increase (p<0.05) in Treg and Th1 and a decrease (p<0.05) in Th2 cells’ distribution during recovery time were found. Additionally, changes (p<0.05) in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70 were observed.

Conclusion

Post-effort disorder in immune balance activated compensation pathways involving CD4+ cells. Treg and Th1 cells seem to be subsets of key importance involved in the anabolic effect of physical effort, at least among karate athletes.

Open access

Ana Ninić, Nataša Bogavac-Stanojević, Miron Sopić, Jelena Munjas, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Milica Miljković, Tamara Gojković, Dimitra Kalimanovska-Oštrić and Vesna Spasojević-Kalimanovska

Summary

Background

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in wide world population. Dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress may contribute to disruption of endothelium structure and function, atherosclerosis and CAD. Our study was aimed to determine whether Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) gene expression could be modulated by oxidative stress in CAD patients.

Methods

This study included 77 CAD patients and 31 apparently healthy persons. Serum lipid levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total antioxidant status (TAS) and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) were measured. SOD isoenzymes gene expression was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results

Mn SOD messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were significantly lower in CAD patients than in controls (p=0.011), while Cu/Zn SOD mRNA levels did not change significantly between tested groups (p=0.091). We found significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (p<0.001) and TAS (p<0.001) levels and significantly higher hsCRP (p=0.002) and TBARS (p<0.001) in CAD patients than in controls. There were significant positive correlations between TAS and Mn SOD mRNA (ρ=0.243, p=0.020) and TAS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (r=0.359, p<0.001). TBARS negatively correlated only with Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (ρ=-0.215, p=0.040). TAS levels remained independent predictor for Mn SOD mRNA levels (OR=2.995, p=0.034).

Conclusions

Results of this study showed that Mn SOD gene expression were decreased in CAD patients compared to controls and can be modulated by non-enzymatic antioxidant status in blood.

Open access

Dragana Jovanović, Marina Roksandić-Milenković, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Vesna Ćeriman, Ivana Vukanić, Natalija Samardžić, Spasoje Popević, Branislav Ilić, Milija Gajić, Marioara Simon, Ioan Simon, Vesna Spasojević-Kalimanovska, Milica Belić, Damjan Mirkov, Zorica Šumarac and Vladislav Milenković

Summary

Background

The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate whether soluble programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) are potential diagnostic, predictive or prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer.

Methods

Lung cancer patients (n=115) with advanced metastatic disease, 101 with non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC (77 EGFR wild-type NSCLC patients on chemotherapy, 15 EGFR mutation positive adenocarcinoma patients, 9 patients with mPD-L1 Expression ≥50% NSCLC – responders to immunotherapy), and 14 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were examined. ELISA method was used to determine sPD-L1 and SAA1 concentrations in patients’ plasma.

Results

Significantly higher blood concentrations of sPD-L1 and SAA1 were noted in lung cancer patients compared with a healthy control group. In PD-L1+ NSCLC patients, a significantly higher sPD-L1 level was noticed compared to any other lung cancer subgroup, as well as the highest average SAA1 value compared to other subgroups.

Conclusions

It seems that sPD-1/PD-L1 might be a potential biomarker, prognostic and/ or predictive, particularly in patients treated with immunotherapy. Serum amyloid A1 has potential to act as a good predictor of patients’ survival, as well as a biomarker of a more advanced disease, with possibly good capability to predict the course of disease measured at different time points.

Open access

Wen Wang, Ci-You Huang, Zhuo-Ping Wang, Shan-Shan Xu, Tie-Yong Qian, Yi-Ding Chen and Wei-Guo Wu

Summary

Background

The chemokine C-C motif ligand 11, also known as eotaxin-1, has been identified as a novel mediator of inflammatory bone resorption. However, little is known regarding a potential role for CCL11/Eotaxin-1 in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Objective

The scope of this study was to explore the relationship between serum CCL11/Eotaxin-1 concentrations and disease progression of postmenopausal females with osteoporosis.

Methods

A total of 83 postmenopausal women diagnosed with osteoporosis were enrolled. Meanwhile, 82 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) and 85 healthy controls inner child-bearing age were enrolled as control. The Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to examine the BMDs at the femoral neck, lumbar spine 1-4 and total hip of all participants. Serum CCL11/Eotaxin-1 levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also included inflammation marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as a serum marker of bone resorption C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type 1 (CTX-1). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded to evaluate the clinical severity in POMP females.

Results

Serum CCL11/Eotaxin-1 levels were significantly elevated in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients PMOP patients compared with PMNOP and healthy controls. We observed a significant negative correlation of serum CCL11/Eotaxin-1 levels with lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip BMD. Furthermore, serum CCL11/ Eotaxin-1 concentrations were also positively related to the VAS and ODI scores. Last, serum CCL11/ Eotaxin-1 concentrations were positively associated with IL-6 and CTX-1 levels. These correlations remain significant after adjusting for age and BMI. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that CCL11/Eotaxin-1 could serve as an independent marker.

Conclusions

Serum CCL 11/Eotaxin-1 may serve as a candidate biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therapeutics targeting CCL11/Eotaxin-1 and its related signalling way to prevent and slow progression of PMOP deserve further study.

Open access

Giuseppe Lippi and Camilla Mattiuzzi

Summary

The role and responsibilities of laboratory managers have considerably evolved during the past decades. This revolution has been mostly driven by biological, technical, economic and social factors, such as deepened understanding of the pathophysiology of human diseases, technical innovations, renewed focus on patient safety, cost-containment strategies and patient empowerment. One of the leading consequences is an ongoing process of reorganization, consolidation and automation of laboratory services, whose propitious realization strongly relies on establishing an efficient project management plan. In a practical perspective, the leading drivers of project management in laboratory medicine encompass various activities supporting a clear definition of the local environment, an accurate planning of technical resources, the acknowledgement of staff availability and qualification, along with the establishment of a positive and constructive interplay with hospital administrators. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide a personal overview on the main drivers and outcomes of project management in laboratory medicine, which will expectedly contribute to construct a new consciousness and an innovative and multifaceted job description of laboratory professionals worldwide.

Open access

Olga K. Savushkina, Elena B. Tereshkina, Tatiana A. Prokhorova, Irina S. Boksha, Denis S. Burminskii, Elena A. Vorobyeva, Margarita A. Morozova and Gulnur Sh. Burbaeva

Summary

Background

Evaluation of possible relationship between platelet glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity and mental state of schizophrenia patients after antipsychotic pharmacotherapy.

Methods

Patients (n = 50) with chronic paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0) initially in acute psychotic state were examined before and after a treatment course with antipsychotics. When assessing the patients’ states using PANSS, the »responder« category was attributed to those patients who had not less than 30% reduction in the score for the corresponding PANSS »subscale«. The control group (n = 48) was age- and gender-matched with the patient group. Platelet glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was measured in patients twice, before and after the treatment course, and once in controls.

Results

Significantly reduced GDH activity was found in patients compared with controls. The patient group was divided into two subgroups according to median GDH activity at baseline: above and below the median GDH, subgroup 1 and subgroup 2, respectively. GDH activity significantly increased from its level at baseline after antipsychotic treatment in subgroup 2. Distribution of non-responders / responders to antipsychotic treatment (by PANSS scores) was significantly uneven among subgroups 1 and 2. In subgroup 1, GDH activity levels significantly correlated with PANSS scores after the treatment course.

Conclusions

Baseline platelet GDH activity might serve as a predictor of antipsychotic therapy efficacy in schizophrenia patients.

Open access

Bosa Mirjanic-Azaric, Novak Vasic, Darko Cerne, Janko Kos and Natasa Bogavac-Stanojevic

Summary

Background

Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a cysteine protease involved in atherogenesis. We compared the plasma CTSS as well as other biomarkers of atherosclerosis in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and aortoiliac occlusive disease (AOD), aiming to identify the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of the disease development. Also, we hypothesised that the level of plasma CTSS simultaneously increases with a decrease of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values.

Methods

33 patients with AAA and 34 patients with AOD were included in this study.

Results

There was no difference in the level of plasma CTSS between the two analysed groups (p=0.833). In the patients with AAA, the plasma CTSS was correlated with HDL-C (r = -0.377, p = 0.034) and total bilirubin (r =0.500, p = 0.003) while, unexpectedly, it was not correlated with cystatin C (Cys C) (r =0.083, p = 0.652). In the patients with AOD, the plasma CTSS correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.597, p< 0.001), only. When the patients were divided according to HDL-C (with HDL-C ≤0.90 and HDL-C >0.90 mmol/L), the plasma CTSS values differed among these groups (31.27 vs.25.61 μg/L, respectively, p<0.001).

Conclusions

These results provide the first evidence that CTSS negatively correlated with HDL-C and bilirubin in patients with AAA. It is possible that differences in the association of the CTSS and other markers of atherosclerosis can determine whether atherosclerotic aorta will develop dilatation or stenosis.