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Open access

Uposoma Dey and Samiran Bisai

Abstract

Tribal population of India constitutes 8.6% of the total population. They are more susceptible to undernutrition which is recognized as a prevalent health problem mainly because of their uncertainty of food supply, which has serious long term consequences for the child and adversely influences the development of the nation. The assessment of nutritional status is paramount importance because it impels to identify malnutrition which is an aggravation of morbidity and mortality. This review was aimed to find out the overall nutritional status of tribal preschool children. It also seek the major socio-cultural causes which influence the nutritional status from bio-cultural perspectives among the tribal children in India in order to make foundation of new research. In the present review, 41 papers on nutritional status of tribal preschool children published from January 1st 2000 till date, have been identified and included for analysis. To analyze the data, meta-analysis was done using MedCalc software.

The meta-analysis revealed the average rate of prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting among the preschool tribal children of India was 42.96%; 44.82% and 23.69%. Among the 41 different studies these rates vary among the different tribal groups of different states associated with their socio-economic status (10%), their cultures of food consumption (10%), maternal education (15%), child feeding practices (20%), dietary deficit during pregnancy (25%) and poor nutrition of the child (52%).

Prevalence rate of under-nutrition and stunting is relatively high in comparison to WHO in India whereas, rate of wasting was lower in comparison to national level which reflect that immediate nutritional status was poor but chronic deficiency of nutrition was less. Nutritional education and short term appropriately planned nutritional intervention programs may also be useful for enhancing their nutritional status.

Open access

Teghan Lucas, Amrita Dhugga and Maciej Henneberg

Abstract

Palmistry or Chiromancy is the art of reading lines on the palm of the hands. Today, many researchers believe that the lines on the palms of the hands can predict the individual’s future. Computer programs are being designed which can automatically read the lines on the palm of the hand. One popular theory is that the length of the line of life will indicate lifespan. This theory was investigated in 1974 by Wilson and Mather who found no significant correlation between life expectancy and the length of the line of life. In 1990 Newrick and colleagues found a significant correlation as measured on 100 cadavers. These conflicting investigations are the only existing studies which have explored the relationship between palmistry and longevity. Since then no other study has validated nor disproven these claims.

A total of 60 cadavers donated to The University of Adelaide were used in this study. Total hand length and the line of life length were measured on all cadavers. The age at and cause of death were also recorded. Linear regressions were used to establish any correlations between longevity and the length of the line of life. No significant correlations were found. There was also no significant difference between males and females or the right or left hands.

As no significant correlations were found between longevity and the line of life all efforts at producing more reliable and automatic ways to read the lines are futile. This study puts to rest any debate surrounding the use of the line of life in palmistry as introduced by Newrick and colleagues.

Open access

Agnieszka Tomaszewska and Barbara Kwiatkowska

Abstract

The anthropological analysis and assessment of the living conditions of historical populations should be comprehensive. Due to the scarcity of the well-preserved skeletal remains of a population buried at the cemetery in Wyszyński Street, Wrocław, each piece of information is particularly important in providing the complementary information about living and health conditions of late medieval and early modern inhabitants of Wrocław. This study aims to assess the living conditions of the late medieval and early modern Wrocław inhabitants. This aim was reached by analyzing the frequency of non-metrical cranial and postcranial traits, physiological stress indicators, and pathological lesions. The importance of these traits for population studies is also discussed. For 98 skeletons (22.4% male and 37.8% female) from a cemetery located in Wyszyński Street, (15th –18th centuries AD), the frequencies (p) of the following traits were analyzed: 38 non-metric cranial and 9 post-cranial traits, the morphological indicators of physiological stress (i.e. cribra orbitalia and enamel hypoplasia), caries and pathological lesions on bones. Among the non-metric cranial traits, only nine (23.7%) were not observed. The most frequent (from p= 0.30 to p=0.65) were foramen parietale, incisura frontalis accesoria seu foramen frontale accesorius, foramen supraorbitale, M3 mandibulare, ossicula suturae lambdoideae, and foramen mastoideum extrasuturale. Only three non-metric post-cranial traits were observed, but with low frequency (p=0.01 and 0.02). Cribra orbitalia was present in 37.0% of the skeletons while enamel hypoplasia was present in only 2.6%. Susceptibility to caries occurred in 68% of the cases while carries lesions occurred in 31.2%. Among pathological changes, the most frequent were degenerative changes (21.6%) and injuries (19.6%). Owing to the poorly preserved remains, the complete assessment of the living conditions of the population was difficult. The number of the observed traits would have probably increased, had the number of complete and well-preserved skeletons been higher. The results of the study suggest that the living conditions of the studied population were poor. It is hypothesized that the cemetery was a burial place for prisoners and victims of various epidemics that affected the city. But since the historical sources of this cemetery are scarce, it is hard to unequivocally state its purpose with certainty.

Open access

Aditi Samanta, Joyeeta Thakur and Monali Goswami

Abstract

Menstrual health is one of the major areas of concern in reproductive health, and affects a large number of women throughout their reproductive life from adolescence. Menstruation is a biological phenomenon imbued with social-cultural, nutritional and personal significance. The present study aims to focus on the menstrual characteristics and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among the urban slum adolescent girls of North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal. This community-based study was conducted among a group of 90 Bengali speaking Hindu adolescent girls aged between 16 to 18 years. A pre-tested structured schedule was used to collect detailed information about the socio-economic conditions and menstrual characteristics. All anthropometric measurements were taken using the standard procedures. Results of the study revealed that underweight girls attained menarche comparatively in later age (12.67±1.23) than that of healthy and overweight girls. Mean length of the menstrual cycle, mean duration of menstrual bleeding and mean number of days of peak discharge were maximum among the girls whose BMI was below 5th percentile, i.e. underweight. Majority of the underweight (75%) and healthy (50%) girls experienced heavy discharge during their menstrual days. Disorders like premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (78.8%) and dysmenorrhea (85.5%) were the major prevalent menstrual problems among these girls and occurrence of the symptoms of these disorders significantly varied based on their BMI. A highly significant difference (p<0.01) was found among underweight, healthy and overweight girls in terms of duration of menstrual bleeding, mean number of days of peak discharge and occurrences of PMS. Result of linear regression and step wise logistic regression (backward elimination) shows that various socio-economic and anthropometric variables are the influential predictors of menstrual characteristics like duration of menstrual discharge, cycle length, days of peak discharge as well as menstrual problems like cycle irregularity and heavy flow (p<0.05). Therefore, the present study unwraps a podium to focus on the menstrual health issues of the adolescent girls and enforce health education as well as instigates nutritional intervention programme to fortify the existing menstrual health status.

Open access

Marek Kociuba, Raja Chakraborty, Zofia Ignasiak and Sławomir Kozieł

Abstract

The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait determined by the relative balance of prenatal testosterone (T) and oestrogen during the intrauterine development of foetus. Males on average have relatively lower 2D:4D than women in population. Lower 2D:4D is very often linked with greater physical ability, strength, superior sporting performance and many personality traits and behaviours which are seen more among the males. Recently, lower 2D:4D were associated with military and police services among the Polish women. The objectives of this study were to examine whether 2D:4D differed between the students of a study course for future military service and a civil study course and whether sex difference in this ratio is present in both these groups. The cross sectional study included 50 boys and 42 girls enrolled in the uniformed course and other 56 boys and 50 girls of a general course in an upper-secondary School. The lengths of the second (2D) and fourth fingers (4D) of each hand were measured to have the 2D:4D ratio. Height and weight were also recorded. Overall, as well as among the civil course students, males showed significantly lower mean 2D:4D compared to the females. But there was no significant sex difference in digit ratio among the uniformed course students. Besides, the females under uniformed course showed lower 2D:4D than the females in civil course, whereas, the male uniformed students had similar or almost same 2D:4D values with the male civil course students. Increased prenatal testosterone exposure might have a role in determining the choice towards a challenging future occupation and such effect is perhaps more pronounced in women than in males.

Open access

Dominika Szafraniec and Wojciech Czarny

Abstract

The purpose of this work was twofold: to determine prevalence of hypertension and high normal blood pressure in university students, and to assess impact of body weight status, field of study and selected lifestyle factors on the arterial blood pressure (BP) values. The research was conducted in a group of 731 male and female full-time academic students who volunteered as participants in the study. The thickness of skinfolds was measured in three standard places. The percentage of fat was determined using the body composition analyzer. Body height and mass, waist circumference, hips and the largest right thigh circumference were measured and anthropometric indices calculated. The blood pressure values were measured according to the Korotkov method. Data were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods, oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis. The chi-square test of independence and linear regression analysis were used to assess impact of selected factors on BP values. High normal BP was found in 19% of women and 23% of men, and hypertension in 10% of women and 32% of men. Factors having a very high effect on BP values in both women and men were the somatic structure and fat content in the body. A positive correlation was found between subscapularis muscle fatty infiltration and BP values in both women and men. Majority of lifestyle factors were not associated with BP values but smoking and alcohol consumption. The field of study and level of physical activity were directly associated with high normal BP and hypertension. In conclusion it should be stated that high blood pressure is a growing problem in young adult people with men being more likely to be exposed to this condition than women.

Open access

Magdalena Kosińska, Tomasz Hadada and Grażyna Liczbińska

Abstract

It was examined whether positive changes in maternal SES and medical facilities in Poland 20 years after social and economic transformation weakened the role of maternal age in shaping perinatal outcome. Data comprised of 2,979 children born in 2000 and 2,992 – born in 2015. To test the differences between the frequency of indicators of adverse perinatal outcome the chi-square test was applied. The influence of maternal age on the perinatal outcome was estimated using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), with binomial error distribution and the logit link function. The infants survival was examined using survival analysis. Gestational age and birth weight were influenced by mother’s age and the year of survey. Infants of adolescent and older mothers represented the groups with a risk of adverse perinatal outcome: an increase of preterm births and higher risk of having children with LBW in the group of adolescent mothers than in mothers aged >35, infants born SGA and LGA found in both adolescent and adult mothers. GLMs confirmed the impact of maternal age and the year of survey on perinatal outcome. The Cox proportional hazard models showed that the year of survey was the only factor affecting the risk of infants’ death. The impact of maternal age on adverse perinatal outcome can be counterbalanced by positive changes in social and economic standard of living of women, improvement in neonatal medical care and better equipment of hospital wards in 2015 as compared to 2000.

Open access

Nitamoni Bharali, Kh. Narendra Singh and Nitish Mondal

Abstract

Undernutrition is considered to be a serious public health problem in most of the developing countries. Globally, the anthropometric measures are widely used to estimate the magnitude of undernutrition in children. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) provides the overall magnitude of undernutrition as an aggregate single measure over the conventional anthropometric indices and helps in identification of single or double or multiple anthropometric failures in preschool children. The present investigation assesses the age-sex specific prevalence of undernutrition using both conventional anthropometric measures and CIAF among Sonowal Kachari tribal preschool children of Assam, India. This cross-sectional investigation was carried out among 362 (162 boys and 190 girls) Sonowal Kachari tribal children younger than 5 years of flood affected regions of Lakhimpur district of Assam, India. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were measured using standard procedures. Age-sex specific Z-score value of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were calculated by using WHO-Anthro, v. 3.2.2. A child Z-score <−2.00 of any anthropometric indices was considered to be undernourished and the standard CIAF classification was used to calculate the prevalence of undernutrition. The overall prevalence of wasting, underweight, stunting and CIAF was observed to be 11.6%, 22.9%, 36.2%, and 48.6%, respectively. The sex-specific prevalence of wasting (15.8% vs. 6.9%), underweight (30.5% vs. 14.5%) and stunting (42.1% vs. 29.6%) observed to be significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.05). The girls (61.05%) were found to be more affected than boys (34.9%) by CIAF (p<0.01). The present investigation reported higher magnitude of undernutrition using CIAF over conventional anthropometric measures, hence the CIAF is relatively better indicator that reflects higher magnitude of undernourishment as compared to any conventional anthropometric indices in children. This research investigation has also reinforced the importance of appropriate intervention programme and strategies needed to reduce the prevalence of undernutrition in childhood and in population as a whole.

Open access

Ivaylo Sirakov, Katya Velichkova, Stefka Stoyanova, Georgi Zhelyazkov and Yordan Staykov

Abstract

The aim of the current study was to test the effect of a diet supplemented with dandelion’s (Taraxacum officinale) extract on the productive traits and blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultivated in an recirculation aquaculture system. The carps were cultivated at a stocking density of 7.2 kg/m3 in recirculation aquaculture system. The fish were split into the following two experimental groups: DF (the fish were fed with feed supplemented with dandelion’s extract) and CF (the fish were fed with feed without supplementation). Common carp fed with a diet added with dandelion’s extract at a quantity of 0.8% from daily feed ratio, did not affect the hydrochemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity). The carps fed with feed supplemented with dandelion’s extract did not show better productive traits compared with these found for carp from the control variant. The carp from experimental groups had a higher survival rate, final weight, average individual weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR), respectively with 13.2%, 3.94%, 31.5% and 31.3%, compared with the average values of these parameters measured in individuals fed with the control feed, but the differences were not statistically significant (P≥0.05). Supplementation of feed with dandelion’s extract significantly decreased the plasma cholesterol (4.76%) and triglyceride (61.2%) content, promoting hypolipidemic status in fish (P≤0.05).

Open access

Rositsa Mileva

Abstract

A fast and sensitive HPLC method was validated in order to analyze doxycycline in plasma and milk of sheep and in plasma of rabbits. The samples were processed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). After the centrifugation step, a supernatant containing extracted doxycycline and internal standard oxytetracycline was injected into the HPLC system with PDA detection. The method showed linearity in the range of 0.125 - 2.5 μg/mL for ovine plasma, 0.125 – 5.0 μg/mL for ovine milk, and 0.125 – 1 μg/mL for rabbit plasma. The inter-assay precision varied between 5.69 – 13.55 %. Values for intraassay precision were between 0.62 – 8.67 %. Accuracy was higher than 90% in all of the tested concentrations in the three types of biological matrices. The mean extraction recovery was higher than 90 % for all matrices. In order to handle only with free drug concentrations, microfiltration of standard solutions with low (0.25mg/mL), medium (0.5mg/mL) and high (1.0mg/mL) concentration was performed. A percentage for correction of the quantified doxycycline was calculated. The most significant adjustments should be made at the low concentrations. The correction for rabbit plasma is 24.63±5.03%, for ovine plasma is 20.10±8.01% and for milk –16.68±0.04 %. This method can be used for routine determination of doxycycline concentrations for pharmacokinetic studies and further dosage adjustment.