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Miroslava Vlčková, Zuzana Frantíková and Jaroslav Vrchota

Abstract

In most European countries, teleworking or homeworking is used in various forms that differ from one another by its legal regulation. The paper examines the SME’s in the Czech Republic from the perspective what makes them to adopt telework using the financial indicators. We hypothesized that employer adoption of telework would depend on some economic factors. The empirical evidence showed that a typical company that uses telework is a company with higher ratio of liabilities and therefore lower ratio of equity, a lower ratio of fixed assets, higher sales, lower inventory, higher labour productivity and higher value added per employee, higher return on equity, higher personnel costs, higher average wages. Within the analysed enterprises, 16 indicators were assessed; the 9 indicators showed the difference between companies that use telework and companies that do not use telework. The research shows a typical company that uses telework.

Open access

Liliana E. Donath and Petru-Ovidiu Mura

Abstract

The paper investigates whether there is a convergence club stance for the Visegrad countries plus Romania and Bulgaria and the part played, in this process, by the implicit tax rates on labour and consumption, respectively. For the purpose of the research, the GDP per capita, productivity and unemployment are used as convergence indicators and dependent variables. The dataset covers the 1995–2016 timeframe and the analysis is based on a panel-model approach. The main results show that the implicit tax on labour has no significant effect on the convergence indicators while the implicit rates on consumption are statistically significant with negative influence. The interpretation of results is made considering a set of control and robustness variables where policy lessons derive from. The conclusion reflects on the policy lessons that can serve to accomplish the convergence club within selected CEE countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Romania.

Open access

Tomáš Gongol and Radka Zahradníková

Abstract

The rapid development of IT technologies in the last few decades has also created increasing number of cross-border disputes. This trend is affected by the fact, that there are no border lines that we can find in the real world. Different law systems have to deal with the existence of this new, on state borders independent entity. In the perspective of law, internet is interesting because of its inability as a virtual space, to fit in the doctrine of legal state, by which the state exercises its authority and enforces its law on its territory. This traditional bond between the state, its territory and its law system is impaired, sometimes it is referred to as virtualization or delocalization of legal relationships. Delocalization has a great influence on determination of the decisive law system and court jurisdictions. In those cases, we need to distinguish substantive law and procedural law in order to determine court (or other institution) jurisdiction and law system which would be applied on the case. With regard to the topic of this article, we will deal with private law relationships with international elements. Unlawful use of trademarks on the internet raises a number of issues. One example is the use of trademarks on the internet and to what extent such use is infringing trademark rights on a specific territory. This paper deals particularly with the jurisdictional issues and how rules on private international law can assist in resolving these issues. The currently applicable EU Brussels I Regulation (Recast) allows infringers to be sued either in the place of the defendant’s domicile or in the place of the harmful event.

Open access

Lucie Coufalová and Libor Žídek

Abstract

Based on the interviews with that time managers, the paper aims to find out whether ideology affected the dealing with labor force in the last two decades of the socialist regime in Czechoslovakia. Technically, the labor market was balanced and characterized by zero unemployment and low and highly equalized wages. However, actually, there was a permanent imbalance with the lasting dominance of demand over supply and overemployment. Increasing wages was, due to ideological and formal settings of the system nearly impossible, and thus the economic agents tried to find alternative “solutions” to this imbalance. This situation led to low motivation of the labor force and consequently to low productivity. The positive side was represented by relatively good relationships among the employees. We demonstrate on the interviews that in the clash between ideology and the market forces, the former was stronger and in fact prevented efficient functioning of the labor market.

Open access

Michael Christl and Dénes Kucsera

Abstract

This paper takes a closer look at the existing early retirement schemes in Austria and analyses whether early retirement imposes a financial burden on the pension system (actuarial neutrality). Additionally, we compute incentive-neutral deductions for early retirement. These deductions reflect the view of the individual, who faces option of retiring earlier or working another year. Incentive neutral deductions would imply that an individual is indifferent between both. Our results highlight substantial differences between both measures. While the current deduction rate of 5.1% in the Austrian age corridor is, on average, close to actuarial neutrality, it is lower than the incentive-neutral deductions. This indicates that there are financial incentives for early retirement, which may arise due to the Austrian tax system. Additionally, we show that both actuarial and incentive neutrality differ substantially across socio-economic characteristics, such as gender, wages and (early) retirement age.

Open access

Mihai-Bogdan Alexandrescu

Abstract

The issue of recruiting a quality human resource appears to be, more or less, a universal one, and it is not just an issue for the United States of America but also for Europe, as the modern armies are confronting with difficulties in recruiting and retaining military personnel. The reasons are generated by the changes of the values in civil society, as well as by the fact that the interest and motivation of joining the army are declining, especially among young people. The competition between the private labor market and the military organization is increasing due to the high level of education of the younger generation and the unemployment rate. Increasing the confidence of the population towards the army and emphasizing the its role of employer determine the connection with the young people, especially for stimulating the desire and attracting them to the military profession.

Open access

Raluca Rusu

Abstract

In this paper we will present the concept of Protestant Work Ethics as conceptualized and measured by several authors, starting with its initiator, Max Weber, in order to emphasize the importance of work ethic on attitudes towards work. We will also analyze the four dimensions of work ethic - hard work, nonleisure, independence and asceticism, identified by Blau and Ryan (1997) among military students, trying to identify how they vary according to a series of socio- demographic data of military students.

Open access

Robert Stănciulescu

Abstract

The entire training process aims at completing the professional training of the military so that they can maintain a high level of work capacity and combat ability, even under multiple demands. The morphological and functional characteristics of the military in this category require the organization and development of a well-planned, organized and managed training system that ensures that the assessment standards are met but at the same time does not produce physical, mental or functional disturbances of the body.

Open access

Nicolae Moro

Abstract

Romania’s membership of the select group of states belonging to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization brings, in addition to the expected security benefits and assurances and commitments and obligations that we have to assume. The participation of politicians, militaries and Romanian experts in the decision-making within the specialized committees of the NATO structures is an extremely important element for the assertion of Romania as a security guarantor in the area, a hypostasis that was only a vision a few years ago. This role of our country must be supported by strong and powerful military capabilities, capabilities that are hard to reach for many of the countries in Eastern Europe. The economically advantageous and technologically viable solution for a period of time is to acquire advanced military technical systems that are equipped with the great economic powers of NATO, systems used and verified by these armies, revitalized and upgraded, a second life goal.

Open access

Maria-Lucia Rusu and Ramona Herman

Abstract

In contemporary society, propaganda has a major impact due to the new technologies in the media (satellite television, the Internet) that ensure the rapid and instant transmission of information, thus expanding the audience. The concept of propaganda acts systematically in support of a doctrine, in order to persuade a large mass of individuals. It is generally associated with a negative action, considered to be reprehensible, and this is the consequence of the attempts that various totalitarian regimes have manifested abusively. Basically, propaganda is a conscious communication act with a political and revolutionary character representing a strategy of social influence. The element of difference is misinformation. Thus, this concept can be one of integration and consolidation of the society or, on the contrary, it can be a factor of agitation.