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Research purpose: Food security remains a major component of economic development. Many developing nations are facing challenges of food insecurity, which had contributed to starvation and other societal problems. With adequate food intake, human healthy living is assured. This study investigates the impact of access to formal finance and indigenous technology and knowledge on food security in Ondo central senatorial district in Ondo state, Nigeria.

Methodology: In total, 216 farmers were sampled, and data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire and focus interviews. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and logit estimation technique.

Findings: Descriptive statistics show that there are more male farmers (61.1%) than female counterparts (38.9%), with most of the farmers (42.7%) in their ages 56 years and above and with 51.9% having primary education. Majority of the farmers (65.7%) engage in arable crop farming, while 15.2 and 19.1% engage in cash crop and livestock farming, respectively. The econometric model reveals that age, income, gender, education, marital status, religion, family size, assets owned and distance are major determinants of a farmer’s decision on account ownership, savings and borrowing. Indigenous knowledge of soil fertility, disease-resistant and quickly-growing crops, food storage, local weather, water management, pest and diseases control are significant determinants of food security in Ondo central senatorial district. Likewise, account ownership, savings and borrowing from formal financial institutions are significant determinants of food security.

Practical implications: It is, therefore, important that efforts to ease access to formal financial services and improve indigenous technology to serve as complement to modern farming techniques to achieve food security be made a priority by government and private institutions.


The protection of children and women in Nigeria is very critical because their integration in every sphere is a precedent to the growth and development of nations. However, they face diverse discrimination and violence because they are very vulnerable. The object of this study is to examine the rights of children and women by x-raying the various legal and institutional frameworks that provide for their rights, as well as dangers posed by taking their rights for granted. The work analyses factors that inhibit their protection and proffers a viable solution. In this paper, we adopt the doctrinal and empirical methods of legal research. The study discovers that despite a legion of legislation, children and women are exposed to many factors such as legal, social, economic, and obnoxious cultural practices. Further, the work reveals that inherent lapses are visible in our legal framework particularly the 1999 Constitution (as amended), Child‘s Rights Act and other relevant legislation. Accordingly, the work recommends for the eradication of factors that promote child and women abuse and review of relevant laws. The work further recommends for a serious synergy between the government and non-governmental organizations for the protection of children and women.


Social media provide a more convenient way for daily communication and business transaction, while they are also exploited by potential criminals to perpetrate offenses of different natures. Fraud is one of the most frequently reported offenses, some of which involve the use of WeChat, an application now used by 846 million users worldwide. The article is designed to give a comprehensive statement of features, causes, and types of WeChat fraud currently existing in China. The article also formulates important countermeasures based on academic conclusions, law enforcement opinions as well as written criminal judgments collected from Chinese courts during the research.


The minors’ vulnerability led to the adoption of certain special means of protection. Among them, special protection measures and adoption play a special role. This paper analyses the Romanian court attributions, as guardianship court in the matter of these measures which are regulated by the dispositions of the Law no. 272/2004 republished, regarding the protection and promotion of children's rights and of the Law no. 273/2004 on the procedure of adoption, and it is intended to continue the paper on the same topic from the previous issue.


Comparative Legal Research (CLR) is a valuable tool for legal research because it expands the history of community experience. Understanding basic knowledge in different systems fills the knowledge gap. However, the principles of globalization and universal human rights require a greater role for systematic CLR. This article analyzes the role of comparative legal research in contemporary legal education. The discussion is based on the idea that it is useful to distinguish between the education of lawyers and the conduct of comparative legal research. Comparative law is a successful field of study that has ignited a growing interest in academic and legal education in recent decades. It is proposed to pay more attention to the comparative pedagogy of legal research in today's world, where law students must be prepared to function in a global context. While comparative academic research, the goal is to foster a deep cultural understanding of foreign law, but in legal education, the goal is to learn the spirit as an advocate. This article provides an overview of the key conceptual tools to tackle the problem of the comparative methodology by introducing the logical argument to help the researcher to filter his approach. A literature review method will adopt for this article.


The right to self-determination is one of the human rights enshrined under the Ethiopian constitution. It is also one of the rights mentioned under ICCPR and ICESCR as well as the constitutions of different countries. Being unique to many other human rights instruments and constitutions in the world, the Ethiopian constitution includes the unconditional right to secession as a part of self-determination for every one of the ethnic groups (nations, nationalities, and people) in the country. As argued among many scholars, the inclusion of unconditional secession as a part of self-determination right in the Ethiopian constitution was based on the wrong narrative that nations, nationalities and people in the country were oppressed. Thus, it is a point of political debate between elites and became the major cause of widening the divergence among views of different political parties in the country. Of course, within the constitution, there are hurdles that can potentially deny exercising of this right. Therefore, this study qualitatively analyses the impracticability of secession and unacceptability of narratives to its inclusion in the constitution of the federal democratic republic of Ethiopia.


Research purpose. The goal of the current paper is to investigate the impact of internal factors on bank performance. All the performance indicators and explanatory factors have been distinguished from the scientific literature.

Design/methodology/approach. To investigate if there was an effect of the distinguishing factors on Latvian banks’ performance, correlation-regression analysis was applied. To test the developed models’ accuracy, determination coefficient, Durbin–Watson coefficient, variance inflation factor (VIF), Cook’s distance and p-value were computed.

Findings. The findings revealed that there was a relationship between all the dependent and independent factors, except return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). ROA has a significant positive relationship only with net commission income, and ROE, with net interest margin and net commission income. Moreover, two regression models were developed and showed that total assets and number of automated teller machines (ATMs) affect the profitability, represented by earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBIDTA) and bank value.

Originality/value/practical implications. The current findings contribute to the scientific literature dealing with commercial banks’ performance issue and could be used by the banks to develop strategies for maximising profitability.


Research purpose. The European Union recognizes the importance of information systems for improving the performance of trans-European transport network ports by promoting a set of initiatives focused on their use. The Directive 2010/65/EU obliges the provision of electronic services for the reception and treatment of declaratory acts necessary for the entry and exit of ships into the European Community and opens the way for future harmonization in the European Union of such services. The research purpose is to analyze and assess the degree of adequacy of European seaport information systems relative to the requirements of the European Directive to the availability of electronic services. Are they complying with the directive?

Design / Methodology / Approach. The objective of the study was to characterize the current situation of the main European seaports regarding the impacts of the European Directive. In this sense, it was decided to construct a survey to facilitate the identification and characterization of the options and actions taken by each country regarding the implementation of the Directive 2010/65/UE. This study was attended by the main EU Members and Norway.

Findings. From the analysis of the results of the European survey on the implementation of the Directive, we can conclude that the implementation of the Directive is carried out by entities of the State sphere. Member States show a low priority to the exchange of information between the Member States and the majority has not taken any action in this direction. With respect to the Single Window development model, the mixed model is the one adopted in most Member States.

Originality / Value / Practical implications. The central objective of Directive 2010/65/EU is to simplify and harmonize the administrative procedures required for maritime transport through electronic means. This Directive is seen as an opportunity to facilitate trade and administrative barriers through harmonization and standardization of the European Seaports Organization. The analysis of directive adoption represents an opportunity to increase scientific knowledge in this economic sector.


Research purpose. Growth of illicit trade has markedly increased and caused damage to a multitude of economic, socio-economic and environmental outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Hofstede’s country cultural dimensions on the attitudes towards illicit trade and the political will to counter the crime across countries.

Design/Methodology/Approach. The 2018 Global Illicit Trade index published by the Economics Intelligence Unit for 62 countries is empirically analysed. Six hypotheses are built and tested across Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions.

Findings. The results indicate that countries that are culturally more individualistic, have greater uncertainty avoidance and have a stronger long-term orientation have a stronger structural capacity to protect against illicit trade on average.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. In reference to originality, the paper adds to the scarce research on the fight against global illicit trade and empirically explores the role that culture plays in driving the attitudes towards illicit trade and the political will to fight the crime. In reference to practical implications, anti-illicit policy initiatives are likely to be more challenging in collectivist countries with lower uncertainty avoidance and a short-term orientation. Policymakers need to tailor their anti-illicit trade efforts in these countries as these societies will not likely place the same value on countering illicit trade as the countries that are culturally more individualistic, have greater uncertainty avoidance and have a strong long-term orientation.