The ribosomal-depleted total RNA from white-berry grapevine (Vitis vinifera, SK933) plant showing severe chlorosis and downrolling of leaves was used for the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis in order to unravel the potential contribution of the viral pathogens to the symptomatology observed. The combination of de novo assembly and mapping of ca. 1.1 millions of HTS reads enabled to identify and characterise a complex viral/viroid infection involving Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-2 (GLRaV-2), Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV), Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus (GRVFV), Grapevine Syrah virus-1 (GSyV-1) and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd). The determined nearly complete genomes of GLRaV-2 SK933 showed its high genetic divergence from previously characterised isolates. In case of GRSPaV, two variants representing different evolutionary lineages have been identified in the plant. The results further pinpoint the complexity of grapevine viral diseases and show that mixed virus infection of grapevine is rather a rule than an exception.
The species complex and infestations of aphids on plum (Prunus persica) and cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) in Bulgaria were investigated during the period 2013–2018. Nine species from the family Aphididae were found: Brachycaudus helichrysi Kaltenbach (leaf-curling plum aphid), Hyalopterus pruni Geoffroy (mealy plum aphid), Phorodon humuli Schrank (hop aphid), Brachycaudus prunicola Kaltenbach (brown plum aphid), Brachycaudus cardui Linnaeus (thistle aphid), Brachycaudus persicae Passerini (black peach aphid), Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Linnaeus (waterlily aphid), Aphis spiraecola Patch (spiraea aphid) and Pterochloroides persicae Cholodkovsky (peach trunk aphid). The dominant species on plum are Hyalopterus pruni and Brachycaudus helichrysi. The first species is more widespread and of significantly higher density. The dominant species on cherry plum are Phorodon humuli and B. helichrysi. The species Brachycaudus prunicola is widespread both on plum and cherry plum in Bulgaria. It was found only on twigs, and therefore cannot be considered as a dangerous pest on fruit-bearing plum trees. The other species, some of them described as dangerous pests on plum, are today fairly rare and occur in low density, thus posing no danger to orchards.
This paper aims to analyze the regional cooperation which ensures stability and good relations to neighbours and other V4 countries and helps to enforce collaborations across Europe in many fields such as education, tourism and economic development. Another field of activity of the Visegrad Group is a joint positioning in international tourism which will be addressed in this article on the background of the current coronavirus crisis. The empirical part consists of a SWOT analysis for Visegrad group challenges and a PASTA Analysis with which the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on the tourism industry in the V4 countries are researched. Lastly, recommendations for possible further actions in times of the coronavirus will be given, and potential future collaborations with the WB6 and EaP countries, also with regard to tourism, will be dealt with briefly. This article summarizes aspects related to tourism market, transport, cultural offer, economy, industry, and environment. The particular focus is also paid to political, economic, sociological, technological, legal and environmental factors of the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia and how the current coronavirus and the resulting measures against the spread of it affects the tourism industry in the Visegrad Group countries.
In the period 2011–2013 a technological characteristic of the Ukrainian clone Aligote 61-6 was made at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology – Pleven. The Bulgarian candidate-clone Aligote N 10 was used for control. During the grapes ripening, the dynamics of sugar accumulation was monitored. Upon technological maturity the indicators of the yields were accounted and mechanical analysis was performed. The chemical composition of the must, the obtained wines and their organoleptic qualities were analyzed. In its mechanical composition, Aligote 61-6 was typically wine one and it did not differ significantly in the texture and structure of the cluster and berry from the control. The theoretical yield of both clones was high. They exhibited good sugar accumulation and similar acid content. Grapes from the control had better technological indicators for obtaining wines of optimal chemical composition and quality. In the 2011 and 2013 vintages, the control wines exceeded those of the Ukrainian clone in terms of sugar-free extract content. The experimental wines Aligote N 10 had higher titratable acidity compared to the Ukrainian clone. The difference in the phenolic substances ratio and the colour intensity in the samples from both clones were insignificant. The control wines were superior in their organoleptic qualities to those of the Ukrainian clone.
Anthocyanins are plant dyes responsible for the colour of red wine. Of these, malvidin-3-glucoside is the most significant member and its content was monitored in wines that were first left to age in oak barrels for 12 months, subsequently bottled and sealed with plastic/cork stoppers. The malvidin-3-glucoside content was also studied in the same wines that were bottled right away without aging in barrels. Analyses were conducted within the time spans of 3 to 30 months. The highest malvidin-3-glucoside concentrations were found in month 3 of the aging process, and they significantly decreased in month 6 and month 15 of storing. Between month 15 and month 30 of storing, the content of malvidin-3-glucoside basically remained unchanged. The results of the measurements show that to preserve higher malvidin-3-glucoside levels for longer periods of time, it is better to store wine in barrels rather than in bottles and when a bottle is used instead of a barrel, a plastic stopper is better than a cork stopper.
The paper focuses on comparing the economic features of the EU-28 and agricultural industry of Kosovo and also economic and agricultural conditions with some neighbouring countries based on the statistical analyses in the period of 2012 and 2016. Generally, it can be declared that in Kosovo the employment in agriculture is at a very highly level accompanied with less developed machinery level, in spite of the inflation rate at a low level with high portion of the agricultural land of total land area compared to the cases of other neighbouring countries. The international competitiveness of farmers needs for developing the mechanization is accompanied with increasing subsidies for farmers. The lack of capital, less educated and skilled employees in agricultural industry result into some economic difficulties for the further prosperity of the sector in Kosovo. The possible solutions for the agricultural industry in Kosovo are developing the mechanization, common selling-purchasing of farmers, more activities in agricultural services, secondary activities, increasing the subsidies for farmers, attracting farmers for food manufacturing industries, extending the agricultural advisory network and creation of better credit conditions for farmers.
Vitis vinifera L. is adapted to a very variable range of climates but it mostly grows in the temperate regions of continental Europe. In the Slovak Republic, the Tokaj wine region is one of the territories, where wine production is concentrated. Grape is a popular fruit and when processed, it is used as musts, juices or wine. Some people may suffer from allergic reactions to grapes. Up to now, endochitinases, lipid-transfer protein, and thaumatin were identified as grape allergens. In this study, expression of chitinase and thaumatin allergen was analysed in the grapes of Tokaj region varieties – Hachat Lovelin, Tokay and Muskat Blanc. Expression changes were calculated by the delta delta Ct method. Expression differences of chitinase were found to be similar in these varieties. Thaumatin was found to be variable in its transcription.
A study was carried out at the Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria to determine the gene action underlying the inheritance of important agronomic traits as well as the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) of the parents and hybrids, respectively. Ten hybrids were developed by crossing five lines to two testers. The hybrids and parents were evaluated on the field in a randomised complete block design replicated three times, and data were collected on days to 50% flowering, number of branches, stem diameter, plant height, pod length, pod width, pod weight, number of pods and pod yield. The data were subjected to line by tester analysis and results showed substantial variability among the genotypes for some of the characters measured. Days to 50% flowering, number of pods and pod yield were largely under additive gene action while non-additive gene action was more important in the inheritance of plant height. Favourable GCA and SCA effects for days to 50% flowering were observed in NGB00356, NGB00326 and NGB00347 × NGB00326, respectively. The tester NGB00326 had a positive and significant GCA effect for number of pods while the highest positive SCA effect for pod yield was found in NGB00297 × NGB00326. Thus, NGB00356 and NGB00326 could be considered as sources of alleles for development of early maturing while the cross NGB00297 × NGB00326 could be exploited for high yielding okra genotypes.
The contribution aims to identify the influence of income on Slovak household expenditures. Analyses are querying from the household income and expenditures data in the Slovak Republic during the period 2004–2018. The data source is the Statistical Office of The Slovak Republic. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis are used. The analysis of the goods and services expenditures reveals the major share of the expenditures is expended for the non-durable goods. The non-durable goods expenditures of the pensioners are 72% of their total consumption expenditures. Expenditures of employees, self-employees and other households for the non-durable goods present more than a half of their total expenditures. The share of services expenditures is also considerable. It is varying above 30% for all households kinds. The income influence on the household expenditures is analyzed using Engel’s expenditures functions which are used as the basis for the income elasticities of household expenditures. The analysis results are pointing to the fact that the less elastic on the income change is the reaction of the Slovak household expenditures on non-durable goods. A significant reaction on the income change is observed in household durable goods expenditures.
The aim of this study was to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in grapes, must and wines. A total amount of 90 samples including grape (n = 30), must (no = 30) and wine (no = 30) were collected from vineyards in Slovakia. LAB were used cultured on MRS agar with subsequent confirmation with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (Bruker Daltonics). Altogether, 904 isolates were identified. Members of the family Lactobacillaeceae were the most abundant in grape (60%), must (46%) and wine (51%). Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella genera and 27 species of LAB were isolated from the examined samples. Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. mesenteroides was the most abundant species in grape, must and wine.