The author presents the results of research on the use of artificial neural networks in predicting voter turnout. He describes the principles of operation of artificial neural networks, as well as detailed results of two machine learning methods used to predict voter turnout. The research resulted in creation of a functional model that allows for prediction of voter turnout results with a considerable degree of accuracy. The entire research process was carried out using the cartographic research method.
Land cover change is the result of complex interactions between social and environmental systems which change over time. While climatic and biophysics phenomena were for a long time the principal factor of land transformations, human activities are today the origin of the major part of land transformation which affects natural ecosystems.
Quantification of natural and anthropogenic impacts on vegetation cover is often hampered by logistical issues, including (1) the difficulty of systematically monitoring the effects over large areas and (2) the lack of comparison sites needed to evaluate the effect of the factors.
The effective procedure for measuring the degree of environmental change due to natural factors and human activities is the multitemporal study of vegetation cover. For this purpose, the aim of this work is the analysis of the evolution of land cover using remote sensing techniques, in order to better understand the respective role of natural and anthropogenic factors controlling this evolution.
A spatio-temporal land cover dynamics study on a regional scale in Oranie, using Landsat data for two periods (1984–2000) and (2000–2011) was conducted. The images of the vegetation index were classified into three classes based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values and analysed using image difference approach.
The result shows that the vegetation cover was changed. An intensive regression of the woody vegetation and forest land resulted in -22.5% of the area being lost between 1984 and 2000, 1,271 km2 was converted into scrub formations and 306 km2 into bare soil. On the other hand, this class increased by around 45% between 2000 and 2011, these evolutions resulting from the development of scrub groups with an area of 1,875.7 km2.
Just as contemporary cartographic works, old maps were usually made for specific purposes, e.g. related to taxation, propaganda or military objectives. C. d’Örken’s map of Lublin of 1716 is an example of a cartographic work created for military purposes, as it was made in the context of negotiations of the Tarnogród Confederation. The author of the map focused on the thematic content – he marked control zones, as well as military outposts, and accommodation sites. In many instances, the base content is presented with little attention to detail. There are a few exceptions to this rule, with fortifications being the most noticeable one. It was most likely motivated by the author’s profession, as he was a military engineer. Still, although Lublin has never been a particularly well-fortified city, the aforementioned content of the map perfectly reflects not only the former shape of the city space, but also its contemporary organisation. This article, due to its detailed description of selected works and the methodology involving the use of old cartographic materials, can be used as an important source material for archaeological, restoration and regeneration works.
The author discusses new classifications of cartograms. Cartographic anamorphoses terminology and a multi-level classification, including not only cartograms but also anamorphical projections, have been proposed. The selected area cartograms’ classes were discussed in detail and compared.
The presented research concerning the landscape evolution of the area of the Kazimierski Landscape Park assumed the analysis of landscape changes that took place in the western part of the Nałęczów Plateau in eastern Poland as a result of increased anthropopressure. To achieve this goal, the diverse data was employed: archives of the “Archeological Survey of Poland” obtained from the National Heritage Board of Poland, the registry data from the 16th century made available as part of the “Atlas Fontium” project elaborated by the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences, old map of the Western Galicia from 1808, a tactical map of the Military Geographical Institute in Warsaw from 1937, and the “Topographic Objects Database” (BDOT10k) obtained from the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. Based on the analysed data, maps presenting the development of the settlement network from the moment of permanent settlement of the area up to the present state and maps showing the changes in land use in the Kazimierski Landscape Park over the last centuries have been designed.
The results of historical and geographical analyses carried out as part of the research were compared with the results of geomorphological research conducted in the studied area. Verification of the obtained results allowed to determine the scope in which man influenced the evolution of the landscape of the analysed area, including its diversification depending on the historical period and the type of the economy. The process of georeferencing the map of Western Galicia elaborated by colonel A.M. von Heldensfeld from 1808 and the tactical map 1:100,000 of Military Geographical Institute from 1937 covering the research area (14,974 ha) was carried out in the ArcGIS Desktop software. The calibration process was evaluated in the Map Analyst program which makes it possible to analyze the distortions of old maps. Then, vectorization of selected terrain coverage classes and visualization of spatial data were conducted. This way, the land use maps were analyzed in terms of environmental changes that occurred over the past centuries by identifying the areas with the largest development changes. The obtained results were compared with the database of historical objects created for the purposes of this research, based on data provided by the National Heritage Board of Poland and the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences in order to determine the development trends of the settlement network in the region. The additional statistical analysis made it possible to determine the trend of changes and to interpret the distribution of areas threatened by the occurrence of mass movements with the analyzed anthropogenic determinants.
The Authors present the results of the multicriterial evaluation in 14 official map services of Capital City of Warsaw. The evaluation has been conducted in 2018 on two levels: in relation to all websites jointly (score according to one criterion) and individual mapping services (evaluation according to three criteria). The obtained results have been compared to previous analyzes of geoportals at various levels, including regional and state-owned. The Warsaw map service falls in a satisfactory manner, achieving a comparable or slightly higher rating than those previously analyzed by other authors.
After short introduction to carte-á-figure genre of maps discussed are three maps of Poland belonging to this category: the first state of Hondius’ Nova POLONIAE delineatio”, Visscher’s “Haec Tabula nova POLONIAE et SILESIAE, and Speed’s A NEWE MAPE OF POLAND. For the origin of the Hondius’ map a more precise range of dates is proposed. Question of the Visscher map’s order of states is clarified, supported by evidence from the author’s research. Finally, line of reasoning is presented and arguments quoted disproving widely held belief in priority of the Speed’s map over the Visscher’s. Also, dissimilarities between images of Silesia on Hondius’ and Visscher’s maps together with possible reasons of these are considered.
The author discusses the first maps of Ukrainian lands within the borders of various countries, reflecting their political and administrative division, which were published in the 16th century.
State and administration borders in Ukrainian territories were presented on the map of Southern Sarmatia (1526) by the Polish cartographer B. Wapowski and on the wall map of Europe (1554) by the Dutch cartographer G. Mercator. Maps by S. Münster and G. Gastaldi, including names of individual administrative units without reflecting state and administrative borders, were taken into account. A thorough analysis was carried out of the territorial division of Ukrainian territories on maps in the atlases by A. Ortelius (maps of Poland by W. Grodecki and A. Pograbka), on the maps of Lithuania and Taurica Chersonesus in the atlases by G. Mercator, including their subsequent adaptations. A number of inaccuracies regarding the location of state and administrative borders as well as names of administrative units have been revealed. Particular attention has been paid to the manner of presenting administrative borders.
It was established that in those times no special attention was paid to the presentation of political and administrative divisions on maps. During subsequent editions of maps, no national and administrative borders were updated. Maps could be published without changes for decades. Map publishers often borrowed unverified information, which led to duplication of errors.
Wiesław Ostrowski, Dariusz Dukaczewski and Anna Markowska
The authors present a comparative analysis of presentation of build-up areas with conventional symbols on 60 civil European topographic maps. The above-mentioned maps are in different scales, from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000, and have been published in nineteen European countries and the autonomous community of Catalonia. The analysis has proved that the scope of characteristics of build-up areas presented on the analysed maps was very diverse, from qualitative and quantitative point of view (e.g. there were between 2 and 25 different categories on 1:10,000 maps). The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 maps generally contain more information on the characteristics of build-up areas than 1:25,000 maps. The characteristics themselves are also very diversified (e.g. only 6 of them appear on more than half of the analysed maps – most often churches).
Polish maps stand out due to the fact that they contain particularly rich and consistent representation of both physiognomic characteristics and general functional characteristics of buildings and build-up areas at all the analysed scales.
Algimantas Česnulevičius, Loreta Šutinienė, Vigilija Krikščiūninė, Rima Svilienė, Neringa Mačiulevičiūtė-Turiene, Artūras Bautrėnas, Giedrė Beconytė, Donatas Ovodas and Linas Bevainis
National atlases provide comprehensive information about nature, population, social and economic situation of the country. In 2017 the process of compiling and publishing the National Atlas of Lithuania (Lietuvos Nationalinis Atlasas) was finished. The goal of the authors is: in the context of the whole National Atlas to present a thorough analysis of the structure of content and cartographic visualization methods of Volume III. This volume focusses on social and economic phenomena in Lithuania. The authors discuss the principles of compiling the whole National Atlas of Lithuania and presents its structure in a concise manner. Following the classification of traditional mapping methods, specific examples of mapping in Volume III are presented, advantages of mapping techniques are discussed and the structural analysis of mapping methods is also conducted. The conclusions and the discussion part present the problems encountered while compiling Volume III as well as solutions to them.