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Nina Schuster and Anne Volkmann

Zusammenfassung

Um Lebenschancen räumlich differenziert zu erfassen, stellt unser Beitrag in Anknüpfung an die Quartierseffekteforschung und den „capability approach“ einen Ansatz vor, der Lebenschancen als räumlich strukturierte Möglichkeiten und Wahlfreiheiten bei der Erfüllung von Bedürfnissen konzipiert. Individuelle Ressourcen entscheiden darüber, welche Möglichkeitsräume der Bedürfnisbefriedigung erschlossen werden können. Dies ist abhängig von der Lebenslage und verändert sich im Lebensverlauf, womit sich auch die Rolle des Quartiers für die Lebenschancen ändert. Anstatt von „benachteiligenden Quartieren“ zu sprechen, fokussieren wir auf benachteiligende Lebenslagen im Quartier.

Open access

Joachim Scheiner

Zusammenfassung

Die Mobilität von Kindern hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren zu einem kaum noch überschaubaren Forschungsfeld entwickelt, in dem Deutschland jedoch bemerkenswert still bleibt. Die Motivationen für die Forschungen liegen vor allem in der Zunahme des Mitfahrens im Pkw auf Kosten der nichtmotorisierten und/oder selbstständigen Mobilität der Kinder. Dies hat negative Folgen für die Gesundheit und Entwicklung der Kinder und ist unter anderem mit Problemen der Verkehrssicherheit und des Umweltschutzes verbunden. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über das Forschungsfeld. Er diskutiert Schwerpunkte der Forschung, Methoden und Einflussfaktoren der Mobilität von Kindern. Darüber hinaus diskutiert er die – eher spärliche – praxisorientierte Literatur und zeigt Wege auf, wie die nichtmotorisierte und selbstständige Mobilität von Kindern gefördert werden kann.

Open access

Anna Growe and Tim Freytag

Abstract

The principles of sustainability are currently applied in Germany and many other countries as important guidelines for urban development. However, different forms of understanding regarding sustainable development and different approaches concerning its implementation can be found in various spatial contexts. This paper focuses on Freiburg, Heidelberg and Tübingen, three cities in southwestern Germany. These cities produce different images due to ambitious urban development plans which are based on the three pillars of ecological, economic and social sustainability in different ways. Numerous similarities between these three cities notwithstanding, they highlight different aspects of sustainable urban development and emphasise them via particularly widespread awareness of ‘showcase projects’. For Freiburg, this includes Vauban and Rieselfeld, for Heidelberg Bahnstadt, and for Tübingen Französisches Viertel and Loretto. The central questions in this paper are therefore: How do images and the implementation of sustainability differ with regard to the three pillars of sustainability? How can differences and similarities with regard to the three pillars of sustainability be explained and what consequences can be drawn for future studies in sustainable urban development? Following a classification of research perspectives on sustainable urban development, distinguishing between more practically oriented aspects, on the one hand, and theory-based critical considerations, on the other, this article examines showcase projects from the three selected cities on the basis of planning documents, websites, local newspapers and academic literature. Moreover, further projects are taken into consideration. The paper concludes with general observations and discussions concerning the image and implementation of sustainable urban development.

Open access
Open access

Charles C. Ekeh, Etim D. Uko, Ejiro F. Eleluwor and Friday B. Sigalo

Abstract

Geophysical well logs were used to delineate the stratigraphic units and system tracks in the XYZ Field of the Niger Delta. The gross percentages for sand levels range from 93-96% in the shallow levels to 60-66% in the deeper levels. Porosity values ranged between 27% at shallower sections and 9% at deeper depths. Six depositional sequences were identified and categorized into their associated system tracts. Porosity decreases with depth in normal compacted formation for both sandstone and shale units. Surface porosity for sandstone is 42%, and for shale it is 38.7% from extrapolation of sub-surface porosity values to the surface. The depth to the base of Benin Formation is highly variable ranging between 1300 and 2600m. This study reveals the possibility to correlate sand levels over long distances which enables inferring porosity values laterally. The knowledge of the existent stratigraphic units, the Benin, Agbada and Akata Formations and their petrophysical parameters such as porosity, lateral continuity of the sands and shales, the variation of the net-togross of sands with depth, enables the reservoir engineer to develop a plan for the number and location of the wells to be drilled into the reservoir, the rates of production that can be sustained for optimum recovery. The reservoir engineer can also estimate the productivity and ultimate recovery (reserves) using the results on this work.

Open access

Emilia Jaroszewska

Abstract

The industry which was a driving force of the economy and contributed to the population growth in many cities for decades became later the source of their problems. The crisis of the activity of old industrial cities creating the economic base (especially of the traditional industry), provoked by the deindustrialisation process and in post-socialist countries additionally by the “shock” of the economic transformation, caused long-lasting and unfavourable changes in many areas. It resulted in the present process of shrinkage of old industrial cities in demographic, economic, social aspects as well as spatial ones (Bontje 2004; Oswalt 2005; Turok, Mykhnenko 2007; Pallagst et al. 2009; Cunning-ham-Sabot et al. 2010; Bontje, Musterd 2012; Hospers 2012, 2014; Haase et al. 2013; Pallagst et al. 2014; Stryjakiewicz 2014; Runge et al. 2018). This process can take a different course in different socio-economic patterns depending on the geographical situation and the time of observation. However, it leads to unfavourable results in each place, first of all to a decrease in the number of inhabitants. The aim of the article is twofold: (1) the identification and analysis of the process of urban shrinkage of Wałbrzych city as well as (2) the examination of different regeneration strategies adopted to mitigate negative effects of urban shrinkage. It is particularly important to understand this process and results of the adopted strategies especially in the context of the future development of this city which according to demographic forecasts will be shrinking in the long run.

Open access

Barbara Maćkiewicz, Raúl Puente Asuero and Antonio Garrido Almonacid

Abstract

Increasing demand for urban agriculture (UA) can be perceived as a global phenomenon. In some parts of the world its main function is to feed the rapidly growing population while in others it is more associated with lifestyle and environmental issues. Undeniably, UA provides opportunities for sustainable city development. UA can support all pillars of sustainable development: ecological, economic, and social. However, depending on existing circumstances certain pillars may be influenced more than others. In this paper we concentrate on urban allotments in Andalusia and take Baeza as an example of a city with an interesting approach to urban gardening. We attempt to answer the question how urban allotments in Baeza affect the city’s sustainable development and what remains to be done to make this influence more effective. Our study showed that allotment gardens in Baeza endorsed all three pillars of sustainable city development. However, developing broader community relations on the city scale, revival of declining local grocery market and dissemination of environmental initiatives which allotment gardens may also promote and facilitate was missing.

Open access

Marek Nowacki

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to identify unique elements of the brands of Polish cities and to identify similarities and differences between them. The work attempts to answer the following research questions: Which elements significantly differentiate the brands of studied cities in online reviews? and Which of the studied cities are the most similar in terms of brand elements and which differ in this regard. The data for analysis was obtained from TripAdvisor. Reviews about areas of tourist concentration – old markets or old towns – from five Polish cities: Poznań, Wrocław, Kraków, Gdańsk and Warsaw were analysed (N = 5125). The research shows that Gdańsk and Warsaw as well as Poznań and Wrocław have the most similar brand elements. The Kraków brand is the more unique in relation to other cities.

Open access

Edyta Kalińska

Abstract

A belt of inland aeolian sand sediments termed the European Sand Belt (ESB) runs throughout Europe, and its western part has gained greater attention, while attention to the eastern part has been limited. Whereas clear aeolian–paleosol sequences that reflect colder–-armer phases are known from its western part, such alternation is practically undetectable in the eastern part. This study combines the available chronological and sedimentary data from the north-eastern part of the ESB, with a special focus on the Baltic State region. Here, aeolian deposition took place between 15.9±1.0 ka and 8.5±0.5 ka, almost instantly following a deglaciation and drainage of paleolakes, and thereafter practically without longer-term stability. Lack of paleosols is likely due to the prevalence of pioneer vegetation, reflecting dry and cold climate conditions, and thus giving limited opportunity for soil development.