This paper analyzes the differences between strategic trade and the competitionm policies (in the form of inward Foreign Direct Investment) to regulate a unionized monopoly in the domestic country. With decentralized negotiations both policies reduce labour and product market distortions. However the fixed cost for the foreign entrant and the degree of product differentiation determine which policy should be implemented to maximize national welfare, and the cases in which the domestic government can intervene, to achieve a Pareto-improvement.
Sylwia Morawska, Błażej Prusak, Przemysław Banasik and Beata Woźniak-Jęchorek
The aim of this paper is to fill the cognitive gap regarding the role of sanctions in the protection of a creditor’s property rights in the event of an entrepreneur insolvency. The impact of sanctions on transaction costs, including their identification and types, as well as the impact on the protection of creditor rights, has been poorly recognized in the subject literature to date. This article investigates the theory of transaction costs and property rights by providing an identification and description of formal negative sanctions, as well as their impact on counteracting the appropriation of creditors’ rights in bankruptcy proceedings. These studies are part of the discussion on the role of formalized negative sanctions, in terms of enforcing behaviours expected by the legislator.
Laura Bertalan, Renáta Inzsöl, Judit Hegedüs and Ferenc Jankó
Direct sales by farmers gained acceptance in Hungary following the incursion of healthy eating and the enhancement of local economic development efforts. Conducting questionnaire surveys and interviews, our research investigated the means through which locally produced goods reach consumers, e.g., short food supply chains, as well as the farmers’ motivations and the necessary developments. According to the main results, personal direct consumer relations are vital for local farmers; however, advanced sales channels are not popular nor fully developed in Hungary. Only the capital city shows some development here, catalysing and stimulating the domestic market and consumer behaviour. On the other hand, the age structure of local farmers or the lack of knowledge hinder the advent of advanced sales channels. Nevertheless, there is a continuous and immanent need for development in this sector; although, the recent conditions of subsidies unfortunately do not support small scale local farmers.
Rok Črešnar and Senta Jevšenak
The main purpose of this paper is to assess a possible impact millennials will have on the future business environment of Industry 4.0, based on their personal value orientations. Millennials are taking over important roles in organizations, but their personal values are significantly different from those of older generations. This paper shows that, based on the Schwartz’s value survey with N=371 Slovenian respondents, millennials are in general more inclined toward values connected to personal growth and freedom from anxiety, emphasizing self-transcendence and openness to change, than toward self-protection and anxiety avoidance, understating conservation and self-enhancement values. These cognitions can have significant implications in shaping the future business environment of Industry 4.0, as it can become more open, understanding, collaborative, accepting, and generally more supporting, thus creating the evident millennials’ effect. Even though millennials are in general well prepared for the future business environment, organizations will have to, in order to retain the millennials, reshape their current organizational environment to better reflect the millennials’ views.
Maja Rožman, Zhanna Shmeleva and Polona Tominc
In light of globalization and modern business, companies are typically exposed to challenges caused by unpredictable and complex competitive environments. The business environment, with global trends and stringent competition in the world market, now faces significant changes that companies should introduce into their current business operations. Among them, the human resource management of knowledge employees has become extremely important. The main aim of this article is to establish the impact of components of knowledge management on work engagement of employees in Slovenian companies. In the empirical part of the research, a sample of 112 Slovenian companies was obtained. Senior managers of companies and their employees were surveyed, using the questionnaire developed based on existing measurement scales. The results will help us to better understand the importance of knowledge management in Slovenian companies and its importance as a business strategy that must be fully integrated within all of the employees’ related processes of the company.
Social responsibility has received great authorial comments on making business commitments compensatory for corporate profits and/or rent-seeking in host communities. Unfortunately, that voice remains silent on the fundamental component of business responsibility and its improvement, i.e., governance policy. The paper, consequently, recommends a corporate policy for equitable and compensatory corporate citizenship in local communities. To justify the proposition, three objectives are established: proof that social responsibilities can improve with a governance policy, that authoritative policy represents a crucial change in social initiatives execution, and that policy absence incentivises implementation ineffectiveness and commitments paucity. Triangulation of interviews and survey data through SPSS analysis shows statistically significant coefficients validating the claim that corporate governance policy is an enrichment and facilitator of social responsibilities. The proposed policy framework will not only deliver competitive, scientific, objective, and excellent services but also represent a novel and future academic investigation.
The German unification in 1990 generated many benefits, but also many disappointments. After the introduction of the monetary union between the GDR and West Germany on 1 July 1990, the East German industry collapsed, and mass unemployment became persistent. Ever since the modalities of the monetary union have been discussed controversially. This paper reconstructs the decision-making processes and negotiations towards monetary union. To a high extent, this reconstruction is based on original documents. Early on in Bonn a consensus was reached that monetary union had to be introduced soon, the rapid decline of the GDR making stepwise approaches impossible. Many officials were aware of the detrimental effects of a 1:1 conversion of the wages. But few dared to go against the widespread demands for 1:1 in the GDR population and government, not the least because of over-optimistic promises before the elections in the GDR in March 1990.
The aim of the paper is to provide further insights into the mechanisms contributing to the integration of immigrants in higher education. Recent immigration waves into Europe place pressure on European communities; However, mass immigration is only expected to increase. The immigrants’ influence on their host countries depends on their economic performance and how well they adapt. In this regard education serves as a key component towards successful integration. As European higher education transforms the influence of these reforms on the participation rates of immigrants is of relevance. A comparison between the participation rates of immigrants following the Europeanization of the Scandinavian higher education system provides interesting insights to these issues.
Udo Broll, Alexander Kemnitz and Vivekananda Mukherjee
In our paper a very simple model is used to analyze the relationship between trade globalization, inequality and economic policy. Although the local government exclusively maximizes the welfare of the marginalized (unemployed) people, the inequality of relative consumption between employed and unemployed will increase with intensified trade liberalization. In contrast to this result the relative income inequality may fall in certain situations.