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Agricultural Soil and Agricultural Land – Problems and Challenges from the View of Legal Regulation

Abstract

At present, the issue of agricultural land protection resonates in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Individual approaches to the subject are in line with the relevant field, but the basis should always be grounded in the current legislation. The paper is a technical description focused on identification of the basic terms, relations, problems, goals and challenges and possible legal or legislative solutions of the physical protection of the agricultural soil and the legal protection of the agricultural land as an object of legal relations in the Slovak Republic. Achievement the goals and their legal realisation is possible only if certain legal obstacles are resolved on the national level and level of European Union. This paper represents a basic analysis, which can possibly serve as a support for an attempt to resolve the defined problems by the legislative means.

Open access
Farmland as a “Common”? Two Case Studies Regarding Sustainable Farming in Northern Italy

Abstract

Eco-sustainable and ethical farming initiatives arising from civil society have had an increasing popularity all over the world in recent decades, and Italy is no exception to this trend. This contribution is aimed at presenting two significant case studies from this country concerning sustainable and ethical farming, one of which is a uniquely Italian experience. What I argue is that it is possible to see the main features of the theory of the so-called “environmental commons” as the ethical-legal basis in the background of these initiatives. Through a sort of inductive approach of research, the examination of the two case studies offers the possibility to propose a more general inquiry, i.e. to question whether and how these experiences can be expressive of a new conception of farmland, which can be labeled as “farmland as a common”.

Open access
The Notion of the European Union Trademark

Abstract

The EU trademark law has recorded the important changes in the last years. The Community trademark in the past and the EU trademark at the present have become very popular legal measures not only in the EU Member States but also in the third countries. Its preferences are increasing year to year. The EU trademark may consist of a sign that fulfils two main attributes. Firstly, there is a distinctive character. Secondly, there is a capability of being represented on the Register of the EU trademarks. The second attribute is new and replaced the previous attribute - capability of being represented graphically. The interpretation of the above mentioned attributes is not possible without the judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union. It is necessary to take into account the kind of trademark, list of the goods and services, which should be signed by the trademark, and its perception by the public. The paper includes the main judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union related to the interpretation of the sign that may be registered as the EU trademark. They are very helpful in the application practice of the European Union Intellectual Property Office and the national offices of the intellectual property as well.

Open access
Obstacles in Implementation of the Right to Water

Abstract

The paper discusses the right to water as an integral part of a third generation rights in terms of its feasibility. The author tries to point out the need of participation of the private sector in solutions for effective elimination of indisputable humanitarian crisis in the world caused by scarcity of the clean water and most importantly by inadequate access to clean water sources. A long time struggle towards fighting poverty and ensuring basic need for life only by means of official authorities proves that despite indisputable political and normative progress, states consistently fail in meeting demands of implementation. Therefore the author emphasizes the necessity of cooperative action of a private sector and public sector stemming into a participative solution.

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Rural Landscape Development Policy in Poland – Some Aspects of Sustainability

Abstract

In the recent years, when it comes to topics concerning rural areas and agriculture, sustainability has become a key term resonating in the political, economical, social and environmental discussions. These issues are discussed across the globe and Poland is not an exception. There are many features that have impact on sustainability. Among others it is situation in agricultural production, employment in agriculture, access to the land and situation at the land market, aspects of the environmental protection or the administrative structure of the country. Therefore, the main objective of the presented paper is to a comprehensive summary of different aspects influencing rural development in Poland with an emphasis on sustainability. Based on the conducted analysis it can be stated that even though many positive changes have been implemented in the Polish reality, there are still many issues with need to be urgently addressed.

Open access
Chemical Composition of Mealworm Larvae (Tenebrio molitor) Reared in Serbia

Summary

The use of insects as “novel” and natural feed materials seems to be an attractive alternative protein source for poultry, pigs and fish since more than 80% of their chemical composition (dry weight basis) is crude protein and crude fat content. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine some chemical composition parameters of powdered mealworm larvae, as a potential animal feed as well as human novel food. It was found that the crude protein (55.83%) and crude fat (25.19%) content was predominant, as well as that the content of nitrogen-free extract was low. Coincided with the high protein content, the levels of the most important amino acids were found to be considerable, especially lysine (3.18%) and threonine (1.34%). Crude fibre content was 7.15%, while ash was 4.84%. The samples were found to be rich in most nutritive elements, especially phosphorus (1.06%) and potassium (1.12%) in terms of macroelements, and zinc (138.2 mg/kg) in terms of microelements. Based on our research and other experimental results, it can be concluded that meals from the insects originating from the order Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae (mealworms) may be successfully used as feed material in diets of livestock animals, especially poultry.

Open access
Comparative Analysis of Organic Food Markets in the Republic of Serbia and the Neighbouring Countries

Summary

The aim of this paper is to analyze the current state and the achieved development of organic production in the countries of the region and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Serbia has significant potential for production of organic food, mostly due to its favourable climatic conditions. The comparative analysis in this paper includes the analysis of the areas under organic production, the number of organic producers and the development of organic food markets. Starting from the fact that organic production is still not sufficient in the countries of the region, the aim of this paper is to determine the prospects of organic production and appropriate measures to be taken in order to intensify this type of production in the Republic of Serbia and the neighbouring countries.

Open access
Distribution of the Invasive Species Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle Along the Danube River Banks on the Territory of Novi Sad

Summary

As an invasive species, Ailanthus altissima (P.Mill) Swingle can pose a serious threat to biodiversity and ecosystems. The purpose of this research is to determine the distribution of A. altissima along the Danube river bank in the urban and ruderal areas of Novi Sad during the period 2017-2018. The level of weediness was determined using the European Weed Research Society (EWRS) method based on the investigated species count per 1 m2 (in 10 repetitions). A total of 7 localities with a widespread population of the species were identified and examined. The largest number of A. altissima individuals featured tree heights of up to 1 m, followed by trees of up to 10 m in height, whereas older trees exceeding 10 m in height accounted for the smallest number of individuals. The species examined was found to be predominant on chernozem and alluvial soils.

Open access
Effects of the Low-Level Western Corn Rootworm Egg Infestation on Maize Plants in the Field

Summary

From the economic perspective, the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera sp. virgifera (Col., Chrysomelidae), poses the gravest threat to the field maize production in Serbia. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of WCR larvae on the morphology of maize characters during a low-level artificial egg infestation. A field experiment involving the Serbian cultivar ‘NS-640’ was carried out in Bečej, Vojvodina Serbia, in 2016. In the experimental field, a total of 96 maize plants were selected, marked and arranged in 48 pairs. Each pair consisted of an infested plant (WCR eggs injected in the root zone) and an uninfested plant (distillate water injected in the root zone). The number of leaves, height and stem diameter of the plants observed were recorded. Root damage and root weight were measured and evaluated at the end of the trail. For the purpose of statistical analysis, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a correlation matrix were used. The statistical analysis performed indicate a highly significant difference in the number of leaves and plant height between the infested and uninfested maize plants examined in July (the third field observation). During the last field inspection, significant differences were recorded only between the stem diameters of the infested and uninfested maize plants. A negative correlation was found to exist between the root damage and root weight of the plant pairs. There were positive correlations between the stem diameter, plant height and number of leaves of the infested plants, whereas positive correlations were found between the root damage and plant height of the uninfested plants.

Open access
Electronic Nose for Pesticides: The First Study Towards a Smart Analysis

Summary

Within a project co-funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the final aim of which is to develop a WSN for smart monitoring of pesticides on agricultural land, the Italian and Serbian researchers have developed a hardware section of an electronic nose for pesticides. Since there are no specialized sensors which can smell the presence or absence of pesticides in the air, the electronic nose has been designed starting from an array of commercial gas sensors developed for other environmental applications. These sensors have a great advantage as they are COTS components. A measurement bench for testing the performance of the system has also been developed. Experimental tests have been conducted and the results have demonstrated the appropriateness of the idea. A test for calibration has been designed, as well, and it will be performed in the near future.

Open access