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Abstract

The ISO 9001:2015 certificate of quality is nowadays the most renowned quality standard in the world. Standardised quality has become an imperative competitive advantage on the market for all serious business organisations. The fluctuation of the number of certificates of quality indicates to what extent companies are willing to ensure the quality of their products and services to customers and clients, and how fast the domestic market is standardised and integrated into the global economy. This paper presents the results of two empirical studies. The first one focused on the analysis of the fluctuation in the number of ISO 9001:2015 certificates in the period from 2008 to 2018, while the second aimed to determine the satisfaction of leadership with the certificate. The study has shown that, during the observed period, the number of certificates of quality in Croatia fluctuated between – 18% and +22% annually. At the annual level, a certain number of companies lose their certificates or opt for decertification. For that reason, a study of the leadership’s level of satisfaction with the ISO 9001:2015 certificate was conducted using a sample of 296 certified business organisations. The study has proven that the leadership showed a high level of satisfaction with the certificate of quality and that they appreciate business organisations with certificates of quality. It demonstrates that the quality management certification has a bright future regardless of the annual fluctuation of the number of certificates.

Abstract

Artillery is a branch capable of effectively supporting the dynamic operations performed by combat forces, with a decisive role in neutralizing, destroying or annihilating the opponent’s capabilities, harassing and banning the actions of troops by executing a precise, effective and timely fire to obtain the expected effects. It uses high-tech subsystems and intelligent ammunition, while the concentration of fire and means is flexible, and the possibility of measuring and evaluating the effects on the target is high, due to the precise means of identification, research, selection and tracking a multitude of fixed or mobile land targets, either planned or unplanned. The ability of the artillery to act in the composition of joint tactical groups gives it an additional utility at tactical level, while the actions of the artillery are complex and ubiquitous in stability and peacekeeping operations, even near the contact alignment, with a strong impact for a wider range of scenarios.

Abstract

In this paper we will analyze and measure how one of the most common phenomena that causes dysfunctions in organizations – burnout – is present among students. In order to achieve this goal, we will study how the three dimensions of burnout, namely: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduction of professional achievement are manifested in the chosen sample.

Abstract

Design - We relied on data obtained from in-depth interviews with managers. Data categorization allowed the application of the main constructs of the UTAUT model and the unveiling of the level of acceptance of Cause-Related Marketing (CrM) campaigns by managers and its use as a marketing strategy. Purpose – Most of the research on CrM emphasizes the benefits of these campaigns for charities and donors. The purpose of this study is to decode what managers think about CrM campaigns and try to discern and understand the principal motivations, benefits, and inherent risks to implement these campaigns. Findings - Managers recognize CrM benefits mainly relating them with an increase in reputation and image of the company, making it possible to differentiate and increase its notoriety. However, the social nature of this tool is what weights in the most on the decision of managers, since they recognize that being socially responsible is a competitive factor. The greatest constraints identified have to do with the effort on the implementation of the campaign and with the consumer’s scepticism, especially in transactional campaigns. Originality - With this research we were able to realize that there is a misunderstanding between the CrM concept and purely philanthropic marketing, which can somehow inhibit managers from recognizing the potential of this tool. Regarding CrM use, the position of managers shows a clear concern about the importance of harmonizing values between the company and the cause, betting on long-term campaigns with transparent communication and investing in the process of planning, implementing, and monitoring campaigns to improve their performance. This needs to be taken into account in future assessments of CrM campaigns.

Abstract

Numerous factors affect the rate of return that a financial institution earns. Some of these factors include external forces that shape earnings performance and internal elements found in each financial institution. Policy implications are determined by the type of explanation and should be taken seriously. This paper classifies determinants of bank profitability as well as reviews existing literature on bank performance. The second section of this study quantifies how external factors and internal determinants have influenced the profitability of EU banks. This paper constructs fixed-effect models and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), which sheds new light on understanding various factors influencing how the EU banking industry performs. The observation period was from 2012 to 2019, and the findings revealed that EU bank profitability is influenced by both external macroeconomic environment and management decisions. The results of this study suggest that equity to assets ratio (EA), Gap ratio, and GDP have a positive impact on bank profitability, while the loan to assets ratio (LA) and the provision for loan losses to total loans ratio (PLL/TL) hurt EU bank profitability. The empirical findings are consistent with the expected results, although, they are different from those of studies that investigated the structure-performance relationship of EU banks because they found that market share and concentration have a positive effect on bank profitability.

Abstract

In order to identify the attitudes of consumers towards innovative food products, including functional foods, qualitative research was carried out in 2019 to find out what are the components of these attitudes in relation to innovative food, on the example of functional food, in the conditions of the growing global tendency to care for health and convenience. As a result of the research carried out using the focus group interview (FGI) methodology, it was found that innovative food is associated with a new taste or packaging, increased nutritional value, as well as health related attributes. Often, in studies, consumers also referred to the reduction or complete elimination of allergenic ingredients and other chemical ingredients, e.g. preservatives, flavor enhancers. Consumers accept these innovations in different ways, generally showing skepticism about “improving” food by enriching it with various ingredients, while positively referring to changes related to the reduction in the content of nutrients considered harmful to health, e.g. fat, sugar or salt. It was also noted that innovativeness treated as a personality trait is accompanied by such features as: openness, tolerance, optimism, life satisfaction, while people lacking tendency to accept innovation are usually pessimistic about the world, attached to tradition or thrifty. It was also noted that consumers similarly perceive innovative and functional food, indicating that functional products are food with a specific health purpose, with a modified composition. The interviewees also indicated that it is possible to increase the interest of consumers in purchasing new food products or functional food through, inter alia, well targeted marketing messages, and it is necessary to take into account the legal regulations regarding their wording when formulating them. This applies in particular to the possibility of using nutrition and health claims in the case of products enriched with ingredients with a declared health-related effect.

Abstract

Background and purpose: This study examines crisis management practices (CMPs) for micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the field of tourism during the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The purpose of this study is to analyse how tourism SMEs reacted to the crisis caused by the pandemic. The present research aims to determine which operational CMPs were deployed by tourism SMEs to minimize the impact of the crisis.

Design/Methodology/Approach: This study focuses on the following types of tourism SMEs – lodging facilities, food and beverage (F&B) facilities, and tourist agencies (TA). A total of 574 valid online questionnaires were obtained from SME managers. The structured questionnaire included 27 CMPs belonging to the four dimensions of crisis management – workforce, cost control, organizational support and marketing CMPs. Exploratory factor analysis and the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to investigate SMEs response to the crisis.

Results: Results indicate that SMEs primarily focus on the following CMP dimensions (respectively): workforce, cost control, organizational support, and promotional and customer-related marketing practices. Results show that there are statistically significant differences in the usage of different CMPs among the different types of SMEs.

Conclusion: The use of selected variables enables an internationally comparable benchmarking process and facilitates the improvement of tourism SMEs crisis management. The conclusion provides suggestions for future research and useful information for scholars, policy makers, and tourism managers.

Abstract

This new era brings new promises of technology that will bring economic and societal benefits. Artificial Intelligence is to be the disruptor for work and even military technological applications. However, developers and end-users will play keys roles in how this technology is developed and ultimately used. Among these two groups, there are cybersecurity concerns that need to be considered. In this paper, the researchers address the process of secure development and testing. Also, for the end-user appropriate methods, procedures, and recommendations are defined that can mitigate the overall use of this technology within an enterprise.

Abstract

The necessity and urgency of the gap reducing between the pace of technological and humanitarian development of society in order to prevent the risks caused by the insufficient level of training of users of modern technologies is pointed out. The expediency of strengthening of the humanitarian component in the educational process is substantiated. Based on the method of desk content research, some structural and substantive differences between normative documents are illustrated, the positive influence of harmonization of legislation in the field of education is shown, as well as the development of educational standards on the formulation of personality values in these documents. The group of moral and ethical characteristics of students and teachers of Ukraine and Poland was evaluated. A relatively low level of presence of characteristics that make up the values of the representatives of the surveyed groups is established. Positive and negative dynamics of various indicators are revealed. A comparative evaluation of the studied characteristics between the representatives of Ukraine and Poland was carried out. An explanation of the identified differences is given.