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The Dividend Policy of Companies Listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

Abstract

Dividend policy is created and formulated by companies. For this reason, the focus of the analysis is on the message conveyed by the information on the dividend payout, the relationship between the dividend and financial indicators, the continuity of the payout and the amount of the dividend itself. Decisions on the dividend payment include two basic issues: what portion of profits should be paid out over a certain period of time and whether the company should maintain a steady and stable growth rate. If a steady and stable growth rate is maintained, then the level of earnings will increase from year to year. This phenomenon is confirmed by the growing number of companies paying dividends. The purpose of the article is to indicate significant differences in stock prices before the dividend payment and after the dividend payment, and to indicate significant differences in stock prices before the announcement of the dividend right and after the announcement of the dividend right.

Open access
Monte Carlo Simulation Approach to Calculate Value at Risk: Application to WIG20 and MWIG40

Abstract

This paper reports our estimates of the Value at Risk using Monte Carlo simulations for which we developed a computer program. Our approach involves obtaining Monte Carlo parameters by fitting real historical data of different periods to probability distributions. We applied the algorithm to the WIG20 and mWIG40 stock indices, and performed simulations for the Value at Risk at 95% and 99% confidence intervals over six estimation periods ranging from 1 trading day to 250 trading days. This approach was evaluated using the percentage failures and the Kupiec Proportion of Failures test. Our results indicate that this method is highly influenced by the choice of past historical and estimation period lengths considered. Overall, we observed that the Monte Carlo computational scheme is a reliable method for quantifying VaR when parametrized well.

Open access
Performance Changes Around Banks Mergers and Acquisitions: Evidence from Poland

Abstract

This study investigates the influence of M&A on the performance of banks operating in Poland. We use a sample of 14 transactions that occurred in the Polish banking sector from 2001 to 2015. Our data set includes pre and post-merger accounting information covering a period of two years before and after the merger. We follow Pilloff’s [1996] approach to determine the average performance changes measured with ROAA and ROAE. According to the research results, M&As transactions seem to affect profitability as both ROAA and ROAE means change. However, these changes do not follow the same trend. The correlations between the acquirer’s pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAA and ROAE and merger-related changes in performance are significant and negative. The same situation is observed as regards the target pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAE and merger-related changes in performance. The results also suggest that large acquirers are associated with less successful M&A.

Open access
R&D Expenditure and the Role of Scientists

Abstract

An effective knowledge-based economy requires regular cooperation between science and business. This is possible thanks to enterprises that create and implement innovations The paper focuses on the recognition of R&D expenditure. This aims to verify if firms with a scientist on their board are more likely to invest in the R&D. We conduct a tobit panel analysis of over 18,000 Polish private firms combined with data on patents and scientists employed at universities. The findings show that firms with scientists on the supervisory board are likely to invest more in R&D. However, these investment in R&D of firms with a scientist on the board are financial constraint. Their growth depends on access to finance. Therefore, institutions in Poland should support and promote cooperation between science and business, aiming for the realization of the implementation research. This approach requires updated regulations in the accounting area relating to the recognition of R&D inputs and outcomes.

Open access
Theory and Practice of Innovation Development in the Banking Sector

Abstract

The aim of this article is to systematise the approach to innovation in the economic theory and to define the indicators used to measure the innovativeness of world economies. The considerations are focused on innovation in the banking sector as it is one of the most innovative sectors worldwide. The identification of the stages of innovation development in this branch is worth emphasising, along with the description of its economic and legal determinants.

Open access
The Use of Operational Cash Flow in the Estimation of Accrual-Based Earnings Management

Abstract

One of the most important analytical spheres enabling the diagnostic estimation of intentional changes in a company’s financial result is the area of accrual adjustments of net profit, separated in the cash flow statement prepared using the indirect method. The special cognitive value of accrual differences can be seen when the structure of total accruals is separated by those adjustments that are not directly related to the real activity of the enterprise, and are the result of subjective accounting choices. The main objective of the article is to present the selected econometric models used for examining accrual-based earnings management phenomenon in Poland. The analysis includes following regression models, namely: the Jones model, the Kasznik model, the Dechow-Dichev model and the McNichols model. The empirical studies were conducted among listed companies qualified for the Warsaw Stock Exchange indices: WIG-20 and mWIG-40, whose shares were traded for at least ten years in 1998-2017.

Open access
Assessing the Impact of Service Quality Dimensions on Customer Satisfaction in Commercial Banks of Mauritius

Abstract

In today’s hyper competitive banking arena, banking institutions are focusing on improving service quality. Providing excellent quality of service is important in creating and sustaining competitive advantage in the banking industry of Mauritius due to intense competition between local and international banks. Hence, the paper explores the impact of Service Quality (SQ) Dimensions on customer satisfaction. Using the SERVQUAL model, the paper seeks to examine the impacts of reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangible aspects on customer satisfaction in banks of Mauritius. A sample of 200 banking customers was randomly selected and data were analyzed through SPSS version 22. The SERVQUAL model has been found as reliable factors and appropriate tool to measure, evaluate, support, and improve the quality of services in banking industry. Results indicated that all five service quality factors have significantly positively influenced customer satisfaction in banks. Regression analysis was also conducted and depicted that empathy is a significant predictor of customer satisfaction among the five SQ dimensions.

Open access
Banks Digitalization - A Challenge for the Romanian Banking Sector

Abstract

The banking system has undergone several transformations since its beginning up to now, some as a result of adapting to customers’ requirements that have become increasingly sophisticated, and others as a result of the economic and political contexts that have passed, which again – have required its adaptation. Regardless of the situation, the banks have undergone a large digitization process, a process that is now in progress and which in the coming years can cause a significant change in the banking we knew about 10-15 years ago. Through this paper, I propose to analyse the situation of the banking system in terms of adapting to these challenges, at the level of Romania, in the context of the current situation at global and European level, in order to highlight both the progress achieved and the gap in comparison to the other countries, much more competitive from this perspective.

Open access
Clashing Perspectives on Sustainable Development

Abstract

We live in a world characterised by speed owing mainly to technology. Everything happens at a faster pace, from the way production and consumption takes place to the way the environment is degrading. Henceforth, sustainable development appeared in response to these consequences. However, considering that we are discussing the topic of sustainable development for over three decades now, it is probably time to bring it forward in another way and try to better understand it through opposing perspectives. Therefore, the present paper explores differing views on the discussed topic, and analyses sustainable development in relation to other similar terms, trying to provide a clear meaning of the concept. More, it looks to provide a own interpretation of sustainable development, and intends to bring forward some of the most popular and disputing models surrounding it.

Open access
A Close Look Into Supplier Policy Changes in Response to Their Buyers’ Financial Stress

Abstract

Trade credit, the credit extended to buyers by suppliers who let them buy now and pay later, is an important financing method for many buyers. Any policy change by buyers in accounts payable, a measure for trade credit, results in appreciation or frustration on the supplier side. Even though, such effects have been well documented in the literature, an empirical study on the subject is surprisingly lacking. As an example, a certain buyer might change the payment policy by extending or shortening the periods of the payments. We investigate how and if the payment policy change of the buyer affects the supplier’s operations, especially on the perspective of inventory of suppliers. This study further investigates how changes in a firm’s accounts payable days and accounts receivable days affect its inventory turnover days.

Open access