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The Effect of Online Reviews on Consumer-Based Brand Equity: Case-Study of the Polish Restaurant Sector


Purpose: This paper focuses on the effects of positive and negative online reviews (eWOM) on the metrics of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) in the context of the Polish restaurant sector.

Methodology: The dedicated online survey was completed by 777 consumers, which we then analyzed with structural equation modeling. Each catering outlet was to allow to order meals online. We used descriptive analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and path analysis to test the hypotheses.

Findings: The findings suggest that positive online reviews affect each CBBE variable in the online catering outlet’s context. In the case of known catering establishment’s offering in the option of placing orders via online platforms, negative eWOM only affects the perceived quality and brand loyalty. However, it does not change brand awareness and brand association.

Implications: This paper contributes to the body of literature on eWOM, which to date offers very little understanding of the topic of positive and negative online reviews and CBBE dimensions. Moreover, in terms of practical and managerial applications, this study can be used to delineate strategy in terms of management of eWOM to optimize brand strategies.

Open access
Institutionalizing Corporate Governance Reforms in Poland: External Auditors’ Perspective


Purpose: The paper examines auditors’ experiences with corporate governance (CG) in general and audit committees (ACs) in particular in the setting of a Polish two-tier board system and a capital market characterized by high ownership concentration, which therefore extends the research on CG practices of an economy beyond the well-researched Anglo-American model.

Methodology: This study adopts a qualitative research approach by using interview data from fifteen interviews with auditors working with large publicly-listed companies in Poland to examine the relationships among auditors, Audit Committees, and CG.

Findings: The auditors indicate that the CG environment has changed. However, the institutionalization of an AC in Poland generally is the subject of coercive isomorphic pressures, which lead to its decoupling and transition toward a ritualistic role. Moreover, auditors report only some reliance on CG information in the planning phase and none in the field-testing or review phases.

Originality: The findings differ from those of prior studies conducted predominantly in the USA and the UK, in which auditors reported far greater reliance on CG in all phases of the audit process. The two possible reasons for this difference in findings could be the different development stages between capital markets and different CG systems.

Open access
International Strategy as the Facilitator of the Speed, Scope, and Scale of Firms’ Internationalization


Purpose: Strategy determines the patterns of internationalization. The speed, scale, and scope of internationalization are important dimensions from the perspective of firms’ behaviors and activities. The aim of the article is to identify and verify the relationship between the international strategy and its impact on three dimensions of the studied phenomenon.

Methodology: The article uses a quantitative approach. The survey was conducted on a sample of 355 internationalized firms from Poland, varying in size.

Findings: The analysis with t test and U test (ANOVA) shows a correlation between a company’s international strategy as a planning instrument and the speed and scope of internationalization.

Research limitations/implications: While considering a firm’s development, especially its international growth, one should plan the activities related to entering into foreign markets. The results presented in this article are just a starting point for further analyses. In an attempt to eliminate its limitations, further research should focus on building a comprehensive model that includes the remaining components of international strategy and other categories that stimulate internationalization processes.

Originality: The originality of this article lies in three elements: (i) the article comprehensively captures the scale, scope, and speed of internationalization at the same time, (ii) the strategy is introduced as a determining factor of the scale, scope, and speed of internationalization, and (iii) the article enriches empirical studies about emerging markets such as Poland.

Open access
Refreshing Typologies Based on Family Firms’ Goals: The Perspective of “First-Generation Enterprises”


Purpose: The study aims to build a typology of family businesses with relatively short experience in the free-market economy. The typology is based on the goal preferences of the family businesses.

Methodology: The research is based on empirical data from Polish medium-sized and large enterprises, collected in 2014. Using cluster analysis and variance analysis, we identified four types of family enterprises based on their goal perceptions and tested the differences among them.

Results: The article distinguishes and characterizes four types of family enterprises: “business first, family second,” “only business,” “immature,” and “family first, business second.”

Originality/value: The proposed typology is similar to that presented in the subject literature. Nevertheless, our contribution resides in the discovery that even if family and business goals are integrated in the enterprise, one of the systems will be dominant. Moreover, enterprises that only prioritize family goals were absent in the explored data set.

Open access
The Relationships Between Psychological Contract Expectations and Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Employer Perception


Purpose: The article attempts to identify the relationship between employers’ psychological contract perception (relational and transactional expectations) and the occurrence of counterproductive work behavior among their employees. The study seeks to extend the understanding of the psychological contract concept and its correlation with counterproductive work behaviors. There are numerous studies analyzing the perceptions of obligations and promises of a psychological contract from the employee’s viewpoint. However, the question of employer expectations and the perception of the fulfillment of these expectations is not less important, albeit much less elaborated.

Methodology: Participants were 101 managers and owners of small and medium companies who represent different businesses in construction industry in the Ukrainian market. Data were collected through a questionnaire.

Key findings: The results of the study show that employers have a high level of expectations toward their employees, and the relational character of the expectations is dominant. However, the perceptions of the fulfillment of these expectations were at a moderate level. The results also show that employers reveal a moderate level of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and a significant relationship between psychological contract (PC), relational expectations, and CWB.

Open access
Working Capital Management Policy: Female Top Managers and Firm Profitability


Purpose: This study aims to investigate female top managers’ choice of working capital management policies and its effect on firm profitability. The theoretical arguments about the effects of working capital management policies on firm profitability and empirical evidence are often inconsistent. Additionally, it is likely that the policy choice is closely related to the gender of top managers.

Methodology: Our research sample was all 136 manufacturing firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during the 2013–2017 period. Following the hypothesis formulation, this study employed four estimation models tested using panel data regression.

Findings: Female CFOs tend to choose more conservative working capital investment policies. Moreover, conservative investment policies have a positive effect on firm profitability and mediate the impact of top female managers on firm profitability.

Originality: Previous literature tends to overlook the role of top female managers in affecting working capital management policies and the effect of these policies on firm profitability. In this respect, this study provides insights on the role of the gender of top managers as a factor that likely explains the choice of working capital management policies in manufacturing firms which, in turn, affect firm profitability.

Open access
Digitalisation of Healthcare and the Problem of Digital Exclusion


Purpose: Digitalisation of healthcare in Poland which covers e-prescriptions, e-referrals, and sharing electronic medical records (EMR) on the P1 platform3 is supposed to be fully completed and implemented from 1 January 2021. The success of that implementation is strictly connected to the level of digital skills of both healthcare providers and healthcare service users. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate potential problems which may arise from the digitalisation of healthcare in social groups which are not adapted to using information and communication technologies (ICT) in their day-to-day lives, especially in case of the elderly.

Methodology: In order to indicate a potentially high level of digital exclusion in society, secondary data collected by Eurostat, Statistics Poland and CBOS4 were used. Problems in the healthcare sector, including those resulting from the digitalisation implemented in Poland, were presented against the backdrop of the changing law which applies here.

Findings: The introduction of digital solutions in the healthcare sector in Poland, including EMR, e-referrals, and e-prescriptions, was postponed numerous times, which can indicate the lack of the proper preparation of providers for a digital revolution. However, a potentially greater problem may lie with healthcare service users, especially considering the fact that such services are used mostly by the elderly. The phenomenon of digital exclusion, generally associated with the lack of skills necessary for using ICT, is frequently observed particularly among senior citizens. It can lead to social isolation which is a risk factor that influences the health of senior citizens and the quality of their lives.

Originality/value: Some of the issues resulting from the adopted solutions and the legislation governing healthcare in Poland, including the digitalisation of said healthcare, and proposals for amendments in this regard were provided in this interdisciplinary paper. It seems that those solutions could be used to reduce the threats of the digital exclusion of a significant part of Polish society, particularly in the group of seniors.

Open access
The Effects of Psychological Capital on Public Employees’ Burnout: An Example From Turkey


Purpose: The aim of this study is to review the effects of psychological capital on employees’ burn-out in the work environment. This research is paired with Self-Efficacy Theory, which emphasizes that the results of efforts and performances are the most significant sources of self-efficacy.

Methodology: Data collected from 416 Turkish workers employed at public institutions in Turkey were included in the analyses to identify the effects of psychological capital on burnout by using two different types of scales (burnout and psychological capital scales) into a single questionnaire form with Likert-type response scale. Beside the Reliability Analysis, different statistical valuation methods –such as regression and correlation analyses– have also been used.

Findings: The results of analyses conducted on the sample of 416 Turkish workers reveal that statistically significant relationships appear between self-efficacy and depersonalization, hope and low personal accomplishment, optimism and emotional exhaustion, optimism and depersonalization. Optimism is negatively related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization while positively and insignificantly related to low personal accomplishment. Both self-efficacy and optimism are significantly effective in explaining depersonalization. Hope positively and significantly contributes to explain the low personal accomplishment level of employees. On the other hand, optimism negatively and significantly contributes to emotional exhaustion.

Implications: As found in the results of this research, optimism will decrease emotional exhaustion. Resilient people can more easily adapt to changes in life. Organizations may focus not only on improving organizational structure but also foregrounding workers’ positive personality traits and healthy psychological capital systems.

Value: This research which emphasizes the effects of psychological capital on burnout levels of employees is as valuable as others in relevant literature with different research results which are more valuable than the other.

Open access
IT Reliability and Innovation in SMEs: Empirical Research


Purpose: Analysis of theoretical views and empirical research concerning the relation between IT reliability and the innovation level of organizations.

Methodology: The pilot (sample: 100) and main (sample: 400) survey was conducted in 2017 among SMEs located in Poland.

Findings: The empirical analysis shows that there is a relation between IT reliability and innovation level. Moreover, information reliability appears as a factor that may influence the organization’s ability to create innovations. Furthermore, service reliability proves to correlate with innovation level as well, which provides additional conclusions that support the realization that service is an important feature, which may also influence employees’ ability to employ IT appropriately and efficiently, thereby supporting the generation of innovation.

Implications: Findings enable us to indicate the direction of further promising research that should concern the relationship between IT reliability and innovation in the context of stages of the innovation process and different types of innovation, which should be analyzed separately.

Value: The article presents a new factor that may influence the possibility of creating various types of innovations. Usually, papers focus on IT systems, while the relationship between IT reliability and innovation allows us to look deeper into this relationship.

Open access
Managerial Discretion and Constraints: A Bounded Leadership Model


Purpose: We propose and test a new leadership model. Our model is an extension of the leaderplex model which proposes that leader cognitive and social complexities are linked with leader effectiveness indirectly, in a mediation scheme, through behavioral complexity. We enhance the leader-plex model with a leader’s degree of managerial discretion as the moderator of the links in this mediation format.

Methodology: We test our model with a moderated mediation approach (Baron-Kenny four-step procedure and Preacher-Hayes bootstrapping methods).

Findings: We use results of interviews with top leaders in Poland and demonstrate that a leader’s managerial discretion is a moderator affecting the mediation scheme assumed in the leaderplex model.

Limitations: The sample size is only 29 leaders. To preserve the respondents’ anonymity, their opinions were evaluated by only one researcher who interviewed them directly. The results may be country specific (Poland).

Originality: We define new boundary conditions for the leaderplex model by showing importance of a leader’s real position (managerial discretion) in an organization. Specifically, we show that the nature of the relationships between the variables of interest will change when a leader operates in one physical environment (e.g., high managerial discretion) rather than another (e.g., low managerial discretion).

Open access