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Open access

Michał Comporek

Abstract

One of the most important analytical spheres enabling the diagnostic estimation of intentional changes in a company’s financial result is the area of accrual adjustments of net profit, separated in the cash flow statement prepared using the indirect method. The special cognitive value of accrual differences can be seen when the structure of total accruals is separated by those adjustments that are not directly related to the real activity of the enterprise, and are the result of subjective accounting choices. The main objective of the article is to present the selected econometric models used for examining accrual-based earnings management phenomenon in Poland. The analysis includes following regression models, namely: the Jones model, the Kasznik model, the Dechow-Dichev model and the McNichols model. The empirical studies were conducted among listed companies qualified for the Warsaw Stock Exchange indices: WIG-20 and mWIG-40, whose shares were traded for at least ten years in 1998-2017.

Open access

Małgorzata Zaleska and Przemysław Kondraciuk

Abstract

The aim of this article is to systematise the approach to innovation in the economic theory and to define the indicators used to measure the innovativeness of world economies. The considerations are focused on innovation in the banking sector as it is one of the most innovative sectors worldwide. The identification of the stages of innovation development in this branch is worth emphasising, along with the description of its economic and legal determinants.

Open access

Matjaž Štor

Abstract

The main purpose of the article is to motivate experts and researchers in the field of business informatics and logistics to interdisciplinary integration in order to develop a new concept of an information system that will help to strengthen a company's competitive ability. The article analyzes the research carried out between top managers, strategic managers and managers of logistics in the largest Slovenian companies. Two hundred companies were included in the primary survey; 60 managers were selected in a representative sample and at the end 30 leaders in statistical analysis. We sent questionnaires to our managers via e-mail. The data were processed with the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 19, as a method we used linear regression and multiple correlation. With the primary survey, we measured satisfaction of the managers with existing information support for logistics and found that logistical, strategic information professionals need to be even more connected, so that management decisions can then be developed and sustained. On the basis of the obtained data, it can be concluded that sufficient investment of funds in the creation of an appropriate information system fosters the development of business logistics. The originality and value of the article are reflected in the interdisciplinary view of the concept of information support of logistics in the development of new products, in the original connections of various business functions, in the possibility of designing new information solutions and in the sustainable development of new services for the market.

Open access

Anna Białek-Jaworska and Justyna Dobroszek

Abstract

An effective knowledge-based economy requires regular cooperation between science and business. This is possible thanks to enterprises that create and implement innovations The paper focuses on the recognition of R&D expenditure. This aims to verify if firms with a scientist on their board are more likely to invest in the R&D. We conduct a tobit panel analysis of over 18,000 Polish private firms combined with data on patents and scientists employed at universities. The findings show that firms with scientists on the supervisory board are likely to invest more in R&D. However, these investment in R&D of firms with a scientist on the board are financial constraint. Their growth depends on access to finance. Therefore, institutions in Poland should support and promote cooperation between science and business, aiming for the realization of the implementation research. This approach requires updated regulations in the accounting area relating to the recognition of R&D inputs and outcomes.

Open access

Katarzyna Budny, Joanna Krasodomska and Katarzyna Świetla

Abstract

This study investigates the influence of M&A on the performance of banks operating in Poland. We use a sample of 14 transactions that occurred in the Polish banking sector from 2001 to 2015. Our data set includes pre and post-merger accounting information covering a period of two years before and after the merger. We follow Pilloff’s [1996] approach to determine the average performance changes measured with ROAA and ROAE. According to the research results, M&As transactions seem to affect profitability as both ROAA and ROAE means change. However, these changes do not follow the same trend. The correlations between the acquirer’s pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAA and ROAE and merger-related changes in performance are significant and negative. The same situation is observed as regards the target pre-merger weighted performance measured with ROAE and merger-related changes in performance. The results also suggest that large acquirers are associated with less successful M&A.

Open access

Aleksandra Helena Pasieczna

Abstract

This paper reports our estimates of the Value at Risk using Monte Carlo simulations for which we developed a computer program. Our approach involves obtaining Monte Carlo parameters by fitting real historical data of different periods to probability distributions. We applied the algorithm to the WIG20 and mWIG40 stock indices, and performed simulations for the Value at Risk at 95% and 99% confidence intervals over six estimation periods ranging from 1 trading day to 250 trading days. This approach was evaluated using the percentage failures and the Kupiec Proportion of Failures test. Our results indicate that this method is highly influenced by the choice of past historical and estimation period lengths considered. Overall, we observed that the Monte Carlo computational scheme is a reliable method for quantifying VaR when parametrized well.

Open access

Mejra Festić

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to present the possible regimes of bank resolution in the euro system and to highlight open questions concerning additional capital buffers and the valuation of assets according to the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD). The bail-in tool is used to write down or to convert certain liabilities with the purpose of restoring the capital adequacy. The valuation exercise would determine the amount of loss absorbtion to restore viability of the institution and capital adequacy. The bridge bank tool offers deeper restructuring powers to the competent resolution authority. Sale of the business tool is actually a variation of the bridge bank tool, enabling the resolution authority to transfer assets and liabilities to investors. The asset separation tool always is combined with another tool. The write-down is not a resolution tool, as it affects equity, while a bail-in tool goes further to other subordinated debt and senior debt. It is possible to establish additional resolution tools in the national legislation, as long as these tools are compatible with the principles of directive and national legislation in order to support cross-border group resolution. The issue of bank overregulation and the ability to meet the requirements without negative effects on the economy is emphasized.

Open access

Tatjana Horvat and Jožica Mojzer

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to show the importance of accounting information for management, especially in medium-sized companies. Sampling was carried out according to the accidental principle, after which we selected 300 medium-sized and large companies. We used the questionnaire, which was standardized and implemented online. Two hypothesis were tested with a chi-square test and contingency table. In this study of Slovenian large and medium companies, we want to find out whether the size of the company has an impact on organizing a specific controlling service in a company and whether, in large companies, heads of accounting are more often members of management than in mediumsized enterprises. We discovered a bias between organizing a specific controlling department and the size of a company, and that large companies have more often organized a special controlling service than medium-sized enterprises. We also discovered the accounting officer’s membership in a company’s management team is not related to the size of a company. The results of the research could be used in controlling in medium-sized companies, where we suggest that management accounting in these companies is part of management decisions.

Open access

Ana Jurić, Aleksandra Zupanc and Tjaša Štrukelj

Abstract

The central aim of the article is company governance, i.e., researching governance of a company that does not want to be only financially successful but also direct its governance toward socially responsible governance. The article begins with the definition of “theoretical backgrounds,” in which social responsibility in regard to company governance improvement in quality is explained. The article then focuses on the measurement of the quality of company governance; in the research, the selected tool chosen to evaluate the governance of the chosen company regarding social responsibility, i.e., SEECGAN index, is used. Further, the case study of a Slovenian public limited liability company is used. One of the important research findings is the recognition that the addressed part of the SEECGAN index needs to be innovated and further developed. Additional questions for the completion of the index used presents the added value of the article. This article has two limitations: 1) it focuses only on the tool chosen to evaluate the governance of the chosen company regarding social responsibility; 2) the case study is based on publicly accessible data.

Open access

Justyna Bogołębska

Abstract

Dividend policy is created and formulated by companies. For this reason, the focus of the analysis is on the message conveyed by the information on the dividend payout, the relationship between the dividend and financial indicators, the continuity of the payout and the amount of the dividend itself. Decisions on the dividend payment include two basic issues: what portion of profits should be paid out over a certain period of time and whether the company should maintain a steady and stable growth rate. If a steady and stable growth rate is maintained, then the level of earnings will increase from year to year. This phenomenon is confirmed by the growing number of companies paying dividends. The purpose of the article is to indicate significant differences in stock prices before the dividend payment and after the dividend payment, and to indicate significant differences in stock prices before the announcement of the dividend right and after the announcement of the dividend right.