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Barriers and Challenges for the Implementation of the Integrated Tariff in Ukraine on the Case of Kyiv City


Subject and purpose of work: Integrated fare to date is essential for the efficient functioning of city transport services and for the involvement of citizens to shift from private to public transport. Implementation of this kind is a necessary component of the future development of the city in the direction of smart mobility.

Materials and methods: The research focuses on evaluating the barriers and challenges towards the implementation of an integrated fare in Ukraine, mainly using the city of Kyiv as a case study.

Results: The article analyzes early attempts to introduce an integrated fare, problems in the way of implementation and, basically, the experience of the EU cities, which may later be adopted. Next, it outlines some critical aspects in the relationship between government policy, city authorities, transport operators and city residents in the context of the introduction of an integrated fare.

Conclusions: The study highlights such priority challenges as legal, organizational, technical and social.

Open access
Commune Government as a Creator of Local Relations – The Local Innovation Context


Subject and purpose of work: The objective of the study is to characterise the status and nature of local authorities’ relations with local communities and to assess the importance of local relations in the process of strengthening local innovation.

Materials and methods: The survey method was employed in the research and a questionnaire was sent to heads of communes /mayors via electronic means. The research material consisted of 105 questionnaire forms.

Results: There is a perceived imbalance in the development of interactions with social and economic actors to the disadvantage of interactions with economic sector representatives. Increasing local innovation rooted in the economic dimension of the development processes of the analysed local systems has been revealed to be of a relatively lesser importance. Local Action Groups are a major contributor to the development and innovation process, mainly in the social dimension. Local relations are not perceived by the representatives of local authorities as particularly important factors of regional innovation.

Conclusions: The analysis of the local systems revealed a need to increase the scale of activity of local government representatives as part of developing relations with the economic sector. Opportunities should be sought arising from building local partnerships aimed at the implementation of pro-innovative, multi-stakeholder projects, which will have a greater capacity to influence local development processes.

Open access
Determinants of Tourist Activity of People with Disabilities Living in Rural Areas


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the conducted research and analyzes was the attempt to assess the impact of selected factors over tourist activity of people with disabilities and factors related to the immediate environment of people with disabilities

Materials and methods: A total of 5 000 respondents were subjected to the quantitative research. Participants of the research were adults with legally recognized disabilities. In the research, there was used the method of a diagnostic survey.

Results: Tourist activity of disabled people living in rural areas in Poland concerns only about 50% of respondents. Leaving the place of permanent residence in a free time is the most often declared by young and middle-aged people with higher, secondary and post-secondary education, professionally active, married people with mental and sensory disabilities.

Conclusions: Factors stimulating participation in tourism are the level of education and professional activity of respondents. In the assessment of respondents the important factor is also a general family situation.

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Developing immigrant integration policy in the Irish public sector: An international human rights and public sector duty approach


This paper outlines a new approach to the development of immigrant integration policy in Ireland that is informed by an international human rights and public sector duty perspective. Based on a comprehensive review, the paper outlines the current state of immigrant integration policies in the Irish public sector, highlighting the limited awareness of this issue among public bodies. It also provides practical guidance for public bodies wishing to develop more effective immigrant integration policies, drawing from international human rights treaties and from examples of policy development in Ireland. Given the reality that Ireland is now a well-established immigrant-receiving country, the paper concludes that Ireland urgently needs a coherent and comprehensive approach to the development of immigrant integration policy. A human-rights-based approach offers such a method and would allow Ireland, through its public sector, to become a leader in immigrant integration policy development. This approach requires the elaboration of specific integration policies in order to ensure that migrant populations can practically access fundamental human rights such as housing, education, healthcare and employment.

Open access
The Impact of the Suramadu Bridge on Rural Poverty in Kabupaten Bangkalan, East Java, Indonesia


Subject and purpose of work: This research was conducted to measure the influence of the Suramadu Bridge on the reduction of rural poverty and to determine the impact of production factors such as physical capital, natural capital, human capital and financial capital on poverty before and after the Suramadu Bridge began operating in Kabupaten Bangkalan.

Materials and methods: This study adapted the model used by Nashwari et al (2017) which was analysed applying Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The data from Village Potential 2007 and 2017 was used in the research.

Results: Many production factors in the village did not have a significant effect on the poverty reduction before the Suramadu Bridge began operating. After the Suramadu Bridge opened, it has had a significant negative impact on poverty. The number of farmers, rice fields, non-agricultural activities, superior products, skills facilities and credit facilities has a significant positive effect on the reduction of the poverty level.

Conclusions: The existence of the Suramadu Bridge has increased the influence of production factors in the villages on the poverty reduction in Kabupaten Bangkalan.

Open access
Local government funding in Ireland: Contemporary issues and future challenges


The years since the 2008 financial crisis and subsequent economic crash have witnessed significant changes to the funding of the local government system in Ireland. This paper outlines these developments, while, at the same time, exploring some of the most important future challenges relating to the financing of Irish local authorities. The dominant local government revenue issues of the last decade outlined here are fiscal autonomy and the balance between own-source income and central government grants, income differences between urban and rural councils, the Local Property Tax, changes in commercial rates and fiscal equalisation. In terms of fiscal dependency and equalisation, our findings show reductions in the vertical and horizontal fiscal imbalances in the Irish local government system. Likely future challenges include the need to re-examine the balance between business taxes and non-business taxes, funding the expected growth in metropolitan areas and the financing options for capital investment by local authorities, including consideration of municipal bond issuance for the Greater Dublin Area.

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Protoeconomics in the European Middle Ages and Modern Times


Subject and purpose of work: The thesis presents an overview of the economic issues which existed in the European Middle Ages and modern times, prior to establishing classical economics.

Materials and methods: The thesis was prepared based on the literature review which included scientific publications and websites devoted to the economy, as well as to social and cultural changes. During the Middle Ages, the mere survival was no longer satisfactory for humans; the times saw the accumulation of wealth, which turned out to be a prerequisite for participation in social life.

Results: The initial intellectual narrative was dominated by canonists who studied the laws emerging from religious doctrines, gradually shifting their focus to philosophy, emphasizing the importance of research methods based on reason. Many universal ideas were introduced at the time.

Conclusions: a) The focus on the method used as a research tool accelerated the emergence of particular areas of scientific studies; b) Christianity constituted the cultural core in the medieval period;c) Theology, in conjunction with philosophy, constituted the source allowing for the emergence of social sciences.

Open access