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Open access

Abdullah Saeed S Alqahtani, Hongbing Ouyang and Adam Ali

Abstract

This study investigates if the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. can explain the returns on stock markets of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The study also examines how the stock market returns of the six GCC countries respond to the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. The results demonstrate that changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. are not significantly linked with the returns on all the stock markets except Oman stock market, which shows a statistical significant negative relationship with the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. Controlling for the effects of the U.S. stock market and oil price, returns on all the six GCC markets including Oman show insignificant coefficients. The returns on all the stock markets do not respond to the changes in economic policy uncertainty. The results of Granger causality tests show that the changes in economic policy uncertainty in the U.S. do not cause the returns of all the six GCC stock markets.

Open access

Ashir In Tishar and Syed Hasanuzzaman

Abstract

Income tax non-compliance is worldwide delinquent and with the small volume of income tax collection Bangladesh has been facing its demerits for a long time. There is still a gap to measure income tax non-compliance behaviour in a micro direct approach. This study uses EVSCALE instrument to calculate the individual income tax non-compliance as a latent variable. The instrument consists of 15 items in Likert scale to measure the non-compliance behaviour of a person. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of income tax non-compliance and key factors of EVSCALE in Bangladesh. The study collected opinions of taxpayers by primary data collection following a convenient sampling method. Logit regression analysis finds out that log monthly income, tax morale, tax education and occupation significantly influence income tax non-compliance. Exploratory factor analysis identifies six key factors that have consistency and shared variance. However, Cronbach’s alpha shows that five key factors have high reliability among six factors. According to rules of thumb, this study suggests that EVSCALE instrument needs modification by adding more items. This study argues that increasing participation in taxation system is a feasible policy for government instead of increasing tax rate.

Open access

Jaana Sepp, Marina Järvis and Karin Reinhold

Abstract

The humankind is ageing rapidly, and as a result, there is an increasing need for old people’s homes. The nursing homes face different problems in financing and recruiting the labour force and management. Lack of resources causes the situation, when managers have to find possibilities to accomplish services and to provide quality care with the limited funds. This situation has an additional impact on the nursing professionals, who have to deal with many psychosocial risk factors in their work. The aim of the paper is to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst care workers. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst the care workers in nine Estonian nursing homes. Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, burnout, cognitive symptoms, and sleep disorders) were analysed using the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s r correlation were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 340 care worker surveys. The highest mean scores for the studied work-related psychosocial factors were recorded for the quantitative demands, influence, rewards, role conflicts, trust, insecurity and work-family balance. Low mean scores were recorded for the meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships at work. The lowest score was followed by burnout and the highest - by cognitive symptoms.

Open access

Kabiru Ishola Genty

Abstract

The present study examines the moderating effect of training transfer on the determinants of entrepreneurial performance among owners of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopts a quantitative approach using a cross-sectional descriptive survey while Cochran (1977) formula for sample size determination is used to calculate the sample size. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach and Multi-Group Analysis are applied to test the stated research hypothesis. Prior to full use of the model, the researcher ensures that the model meets the acceptable goodness-of-fit indices: X 2 (CMIN) = 387.238 (DF = 196), Relative X 2 (CMIN/DF) = 1.976, AGFI = 0.870, GFI = 0.899, CFI = 0.939, IFI = 0.939, TLI = 0.928 and RMSEA = 0.056. The structural model has revealed that the relationship between personal qualities, business competences, and environmental factors are moderated by training transfer in the study with measurement residual X 2 greater than unconstrained X 2 based on model comparison output ΔX 2 (CMIN) = 140.931; Δdf = 57; p = 0.000. Therefore, there is presence of moderation effect of training transfer on the determinants of entrepreneurial performance in the overall model.

Open access

Olatunji A. Shobande

Abstract

The study examines the impact of switching from direct to indirect monetary policy on industrial growth in Nigeria, using the annual time series data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s (CBN) statistical bulletin between 1960 and 2015. The study adopts the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach developed by Pesaran, Shin and Smith (2001) for estimating the relevant relationships. The result of the long-run estimates shows that domestic credit, interest rate and trade balance have positive impact on industrial output while money supply, inflation and exchange rate have negative impact on industrial growth. The result of the short-run dynamics shows that change in the previous (one and second lagged) periods of indirect monetary policy (interest rate, money supply, domestic credit and exchange rate) and industrial output were negatively related to change in industrial output. The error correction term indicates the speed of adjustment of equilibrium to their long-run position, which was found to be negative and significant. The study recommends that policy makers use both conventional and non-conventional monetary policies to speed up industrial output growth and enhance economic recovery by manipulating the macro-economic fundamentals.

Open access

Carole Ibrahim

Abstract

The present paper studies empirically the relationship between government spending and non-oil economic growth in the UAE for the last four decades by using the vector autoregression (VAR) approach. The findings of the study suggest that the implementation of expansionary policy, through the intensification of current and development public expenditures, induces an increase in the non-oil economic growth during the subsequent periods of the government spending shock. Thus, the implementation of expansionary government spending stimulates the UAE economy, especially during recession periods. The study suggests that policymakers should concentrate their spending on the right projects, as well as on research and development. Moreover, they should channel their transfers and subsidies to the productive sectors, and they should ensure that higher productivity in public institutions is in conjunction with the rise in wages and salaries to achieve sustainable economic growth.

Open access

Cordelia Onyinyechi Omodero

Abstract

This study considers the consequences of external loan on capital investment in Nigeria. Data for the study have been collected from the World Bank and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, 2018 edition. The variables on which data are sourced include government capital expenditure, external debt accumulation, debt servicing cost, inflation rate, and exchange rate. Government capital expenditure is the dependent variable, while external debt accumulation and debt servicing cost are the key independent variables. Inflation and exchange rates are used as the moderating variables. The scope of the study covers the period from 1996 to 2018 and the data are analysed using the ordinary least squares multiple regression method. The regression results indicate that external debt has a significant negative impact on capital investment while debt servicing cost has a strong and significant positive effect on capital investment. Under this circumstance, the controlling variables are not significant in influencing capital investment. Hence, the study suggests more focus on profitable capital investments if external borrowing must be embarked upon. The need for the development of untapped natural resources, establishment of industries and revival of abandoned industries to boost debt repayment has been emphasized. The study also strongly recommends that the existing governments (state and federal) should endeavour to complete capital projects of past administrations in order to drive the economy and to avoid wastage of financial resources including the borrowed funds.

Open access

Ayuba K. Ibrahim and Shazida Mohd Khan

Abstract

The study examines the long-run relationship between domestic debt and the fiscal policy of economic growth in Nigeria in the period from 1981 to 2013 owing to government reforms in the financial system, particularly due to the establishment of the Debt Management Office (DMO) in 2000 and a new fully funded pension fund scheme, both of which resulted in a resurgence of the debt market. The issue that is often raised is the doubt regarding the stability of the debt and its likely implications for the economy, as well as the unpleasant consequences for the government embarking on consolidation. The study employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and the bounds test as proposed by Narayan (2005), anchored on the perspective of the endogenous growth theory. The results reveal that although overall the adverse negative domestic debt hurts the economy, it has a positive effect on the total aggregate government revenue and economic growth in Nigeria in the research period. Furthermore, the paper develops a system to assess the speed of the adjustment mechanism coefficient in an error correction model (ECM).

Open access

Aleksandrs Kotlars

Abstract

Contemporary third-party logistics (3PL) companies tend to broaden their competences in different fields and apart from traditional logistics services provide various value-added services to their customers. A systematic approach of 3PL resource management, as well as performance and quality indicator measurement are needed to forecast development of key performance indicators of a company. The purpose of this study is to discover contemporary tendencies of 3PL with regard to resources, performance and quality related issues, to determine resources, processes and quality indicators of 3PL, and to develop a system dynamics model for optimization of internal resources and processes of a company. The paper provides a systematic review of literature related to management of 3PL resources, quality and performance measurement. A model of management and optimization of 3PL resources and internal processes is developed by applying System Dynamics. The developed model consists of six blocks, namely, commercial activities, operations, procurement, administration, personnel management and quality management, representing different areas of internal activities of 3PL.

Open access

Filiz Ersoz, Deniz Merdin and Taner Ersoz

Abstract

Rapid development of technology, particularly in the field of artificial intelligence, has fuelled the concept of Industry 4.0 among all types of businesses across the globe. This has driven sustainable growth for those businesses as well as promoted economic prosperity in the countries where they operate in. In view of this information, it is of absolute importance that the entire business landscape in Turkey avails itself to greater awareness and education about the benefits of embracing a comprehensive Industry 4.0 philosophy. It is also important to shed the light on the problems these businesses may face in transition from the old industrial philosophies to the new philosophy of Industry 4.0. Therefore, the aim of this study is to measure the level of Industry 4.0 awareness among businesses in Turkey. The research also seeks to determine how targeted Industry 4.0 educational programs and policies vary in relation to the demographic characteristics among some business operators in Turkey. A multiple case study design governed this entire research. Thus, views and in-depth data from 32 companies based in Turkey were collected by questionnaire and subsequently analysed in a detailed format. At the end of the study, the findings revealed that Industry 4.0 awareness differed depending on the employees’ levels of education. The researchers also discovered that the status or extent of relationships these companies had with foreign partners abroad has a significant impact on the awareness levels of Industry 4.0.