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Unemployment Impact of Product and Labor Market Regulation: Evidence from European Countries

Abstract

This paper provides robust estimates of the impact of both product and labor market regulations on unemployment using data from 24 European countries over the period 1998–2013. Controlling for country fixed effects, endogeneity, and a large set of covariates, results show that product market deregulation overall reduces the unemployment rate. This finding is robust across all specifications and in line with theoretical predictions. However, not all types of reforms have the same effect: deregulation of state controls and in particular involvement in business operations tend to push up the unemployment rate. Labor market deregulation, proxied by the employment protection legislation index, is detrimental to unemployment in the short run, while a positive impact (i.e., a reduction in the unemployment rate) occurs only in the long run. Analysis by sub-indicators shows that reducing protection against collective dismissals helps in reducing the unemployment rate. The unemployment rate equation is also estimated for different categories of workers. Although men and women are equally affected by product and labor market deregulations, workers distinguished by age and educational attainment are affected differently. In terms of employment protection, young workers are almost twice as strongly affected as older workers. Regarding product market deregulation, highly educated individuals are less impacted than low- and middle-educated workers.

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Survey vs Scraped Data: Comparing Time Series Properties of Web and Survey Vacancy Data

Abstract

This paper studies the relationship between a vacancy population obtained from web crawling and vacancies in the economy inferred by a National Statistics Office (NSO) using a traditional method. We compare the time series properties of samples obtained between 2007 and 2014 by Statistics Netherlands and by a web scraping company. We find that the web and NSO vacancy data present similar time series properties, suggesting that both time series are generated by the same underlying phenomenon: the real number of new vacancies in the economy. We conclude that, in our case study, web-sourced data are able to capture aggregate economic activity in the labor market.

Open access
Labor Migration in Indonesia and the Health of Children Left Behind

Abstract

Economic research on labor migration in the developing world has traditionally focused on the role played by the remittances of overseas migrant labor in the sending country’s economy. Recently, due in no small part to the availability of rich microdata, more attention has been paid to the effects of migration on the lives of family members left behind. This paper examines how the temporary migration of parents for work affects the health outcomes of children left behind using the longitudinal data obtained from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The anthropometric measure of the child health used, height-for-age, serves as a proxy for stunting. The evidence suggests that whether parental migration is beneficial or deleterious to the child health depends on which parent moved. In particular, migration of the mother has an adverse effect on the child’s height-for-age, reducing height-for-age Z-score by 0.5 standard deviations. This effect is not seen on the migration of the father.

Open access
The Consequences of Shadow Economy and Corruption on Tax Revenue Performance in Nigeria

Abstract

Shadow economy and corruption are the two harmful activities that do not work in the favour of tax revenue performance. As a result it renders an effective government incapacitated and unable to carry out its social responsibilities. This study considers the effect of the informal economy and graft on tax revenue performance in Nigeria using secondary data that cover a period from 1996 to 2018. This period has been covered by the corruption perception index captured by the Transparency International for Nigeria. Despite the theoretical approaches available in measuring the size of the shadow economy, the ordinary least squares technique is specifically used to perform the multi-regression analysis to arrive at the empirical results which indicate that both the shadow economy and corruption have negative influences on tax revenue performance in Nigeria, although the negative impact of corruption on tax revenue is more robust and significant. Thus, the study suggests among others that the government should step up action against corruption and also address the root causes of shadow economy in order to make the participants of the informal sector willing to formalize their businesses and voluntarily comply with tax payment obligations.

Open access
The Dynamics of Savings Mobilisation in Lesotho

Abstract

This paper provides a conceptual analysis of the dynamics of savings in Lesotho for the period 1960 to 2017. The study is motivated by the low and sometimes negative savings rate and the declining level of economic growth prevailing in Lesotho during the period from 1960 to 2017. The study analyses the behaviour of savings in Lesotho, using the savings trends for the country ever since it obtained independence in 1966. The study further examines the policies that the government of Lesotho has implemented in order to promote savings in the country. The government adopted a policy on rural savings and credit schemes as a means of promoting savings in Lesotho. The purpose of the policy is to improve access to credit for the rural population. The study has identified some challenges that impede savings mobilization in Lesotho. The major savings challenge in Lesotho is the lack of banking facilities in rural areas.

Open access
The Economic Growth and the Opportunity for the Private Equity Funds to Divest: An Empirical Analysis for Eastern Europe

Abstract

The author studies the private equity divestments in Eastern Europe and tests a long-term relation between these divestments and the real GDP variation. This research paper focuses on a sample covering the period 2000-2013 which considers the dynamics of the private equity divestments during the last financial crisis. The empirical analysis follows the methodology developed by Granger (1969), Toda and Yamamoto (1995), Dufour and Renault (1998), Konya (2004), Foresti (2006) and Onuoha, Okonkwo, Okoro, Kingsley (2018). The analysis shows that Eastern European private equity divestment market is still emerging characterized by high volatilities. The results prove that GDP recession explains in at certain degree the evolution of private equity divestments during the crisis. However, the Granger causality test shows that the information provided by the past variation of the real GDP cannot allow us to predict the short-term movements of private equity divestments in Eastern Europe.

Open access
Is the Nigerian Stock Market Efficient? Pre and Post 2007-2009 Meltdown Analysis

Abstract

Efficient market hypothesis asserts movements in asset prices are due to significant changes in information. The financial crisis of 2007-2009 originated from subprime mortgages in the United States and affected African countries through local stock markets. This study evaluates the Nigerian stock market efficiency in the pre and post financial meltdown of 2007-2009. GARCH models under three error distributional assumptions were used. The data covers January 2010 to December 2016 divided into pre and post meltdown. Findings indicate that in the pre and post meltdown, the Nigerian stock market is inefficient in the weak form while using the meltdown as event window, the market is efficient in the semi-strong form. It was recommended that prompt release of financial information by quoted firms should be on-line real time and mandatory to discourage rumour and speculative activities. Authority should not only spell out punishments but should be strict and firm about it.

Open access
Supporting Ecological Innovation as a Factor for Economic Development

Abstract

The paper deals with the evaluation of the ecological innovation as a factor for economic development through the correlation and regression analysis. The paper.analysis the.total ecological.innovation index of Slovakia within the.European Union and in relationship to growth GDP of Slovakia. Correlation and. regression analysis. examines the interdependence between.total ecological innovation index and economic growth. GDP is one of the key elements of effective support for eco-innovation.

Open access
The Unemployment of Highly Educated People in Romania. A Panel VAR Approach

Abstract

The insertion of graduates of higher education on the labor market is one of the problems faced by the Romanian labor market. Based on a VAR model in the panel, the number of unemployed with higher education in Romania is explained in correlation with variables related to the educational environment. As the number of graduates, the number of teaching staff and the number of faculties increase the unemployment rate among people with higher education also increases slightly, showing that they have not immediately integrated into the labor market. A shock (an innovation) in the series of unemployed numbers results in an increase in the number of unemployed and a long-term stabilization of the influence to positive values. A shock to the data series on the number of graduates, the number of faculties and teaching staff does not have an immediate effect on the number of unemployed with higher education.

Open access
Diaspora Externalities

Abstract

This review article surveys the recent economic literature on diaspora networks, globalization, and development. Diasporas are shown to contribute to the economic and cultural integration of source (i.e., developing) countries into the global economy. I first review the effect of diaspora networks on core globalization outcomes such as trade, foreign investments, and the diffusion of knowledge and technology across borders. I then turn to the cultural and political sway of the diaspora, investigating the impact of emigration on the formation of political attitudes, fertility behavior, and other aspects of culture in the home country.

Open access