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Janusz Kudła, Katarzyna Kopczewska, Agata Kocia, Robert Kruszewski and Konrad Walczyk

Abstract

To finance public expenditure a government needs to raise revenue, which mainly comes from taxes and borrowings. During a financial crisis, however, financing of budget deficit is particularly difficult because of a rise in debt servicing costs that crowd out other expenses and raise the concern for government solvency. In extreme cases, governments are constrained to tax, as borrowing opportunities are strictly limited or unavailable. Still, governments can choose from tax menu options (income and consumption taxes), given the flexibility of the tax mix. This article presents a long-term dynamic model of fiscal solvency that shows the equilibrium the revenue maximising government can obtain with reasonable tax rates when capital income can be shifted and there are constraints on the consumption tax. Specifically, the solution predicts a positive level of bonds in the long-term equilibrium and the tax rates dependent positively on the abundance of the tax bases.

Open access

R. Saraswathy, Jijo James, P. Kasinatha Pandian, G. Sriram, J. K. Sundar, G. Swarna Kumar and A. Sathish Kumar

Abstract

The present study involved the utilization of crushed glass as an auxiliary additive in the manufacture of cement stabilized fly ash (CSF) bricks. The bricks were made with 1:1 proportion of fly ash and sand stabilized with 20 % cement. Crushed glass was used as replacement for the fine aggregate in increments of 10 % up to 40 % wherein the sand was completely replaced with crushed glass. The various mix proportions were then moulded into bricks with the addition of water by hand moulding method of forming the bricks and sun dried followed by sprinkle curing over a period of 21 days. The bricks were then subjected to compressive strength, water absorption and efflorescence tests to gauge its performance. The investigation revealed that the addition of crushed glass to the brick mix resulted in an increase in strength of the bricks, however, the maximum strength achieved could not achieve the strength of the control specimen. But the strength was higher than the minimum strength recommended by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for stabilized blocks as well as burnt bricks. It also reduced the water absorption marginally while no efflorescence was seen in any of the combinations. A cost comparison revealed that the optimal combination with crushed glass was able reduce the cost of the brick by 20 %.

Open access

Grzegorz Zbińkowski

Abstract

The objective of this paper is a presentation of results of an analysis of the Three Seas Initiative (TSI), whose participating countries (except Austria) treat it as a method of: a) reducing their dependence on crude oil and natural gas imports from Russia, thus increasing their energy security; b) accelerated filling of the persisting civilisation gap between the initiative participants and more developed EU countries owing to the improved quality and maturity of the transport and digital North-South infrastructure; and c) the actual implementation of the “vision of a Europe whole, free and at peace.” The analysis has assumed the following research hypothesis: The CEE states’ joining the EU has not markedly changed those states’ development, as material differences do still exist in this respect between the new EU states and the old ones, which was verified positively.

Open access

Jozef Komačka and IIja Březina

Abstract

The propagation of waves generated by load impulse of two FWD types was assessed using test outputs in the form of time history data. The calculated travel time of wave between the receiver in the centre of load and others receivers showed the contradiction with the theory as for the receivers up to 600 (900) mm from the centre of load. Therefore, data collected by the sensors positioned at the distance of 1200 and 1500 mm were used.

The influence of load magnitude on the waves propagation was investigated via the different load force with approximately the same load time and vice versa. Expectations relating to the travel time of waves, depending on the differences of load impulse, were not met. The shorter travel time of waves was detected in the case of the lower frequencies. The use of load impulse magnitude as a possible explanation was not successful because opposite tendencies in travel time were noticed.

Open access

Mohammad Hosein Razavi and Parviz Alipour

Abstract

Every year, many people in the world lose their homes due to natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods and so on. In critical situations, the use of prefabricated parts in the buildings has many technical and economic advantages. Hence, today, this technology is widely used in the industrialized societies. The purpose of this research is to provide an appropriate model for speeding up the process of constructing buildings using prefabricated parts in critical conditions. To do this, Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach has been used to select the best option for speeding up construction projects using prefabricated parts and in critical situations. In this study, the intended criteria are quality, time, cost, and strength. The options that we should compare and the best option among them, according to the criteria mentioned, are Lightweight Steel Frame (LSF) parts, steel parts and concrete parts. In order to find this prioritization, the viewpoints of civil engineers and construction experts have been used. It should also be noted that for the ANP method, the Super Decisions software has been used.

Open access

Sarah Bakhtiari and Mohammad Ali Nekooie

Abstract

Due to the fact that dams are considered one of the strategic infrastructures of a country, it is very important to protect it against destructive acts. Accordingly, sensors were used at various points to record structural responses to the dam. Based on the questionnaires completed by experts, accuracy had the score of 3.8 so it was considered as the most important feature of the sensors and the optical fiber sensor with a mean score of 3.93 was selected as the best sensor type among the available ones. For this project, a questionnaire was prepared based on Likert scale and SPSS method was used in TOPSIS software. Then, Seimare concrete double curvature arch dam was simulated in ABAQUS 2017 software and the proper positioning of the sensors for optimum performance was determined based on Finite Element Method analysis and according to structural control criteria such as tension, displacement, strain, velocity and so one.

Open access

Maciej Major, Izabela Major, Daniela Kuchárová and Krzysztof Kuliński

Abstract

In this work considerations concerning eccentrically loaded socket footing with cut-off pyramid shaped socket were presented. As an object of study sloped footing with 1.40 m height, corresponding to the maximum frost depth has been adopted. Knowing that in practice there are no perfect pure axial loads, load applied on the eccentricity has been taken into considerations. Eccentric loads result in footing rotation in the direction of eccentricity and acting load, hence one footing end is imbedding into the ground, whereas second end tries to rise up. To observe that phenomenon, elastic type of support under the foundation was introduced corresponding to the naturally humid sand with medium compaction. Presented in this paper considerations of innovative connection technology between footing and column were based on performed numerical studies. Advantages and disadvantages of presented footing in comparison to normal socket footings solutions were widely discussed. Numerical analyses were performed with the utilization Finite Element Method based SolidWorks software.

Open access

Dominik Niemiec, Roman Bulko and Juraj Mužík

Abstract

The article focuses on the use of the meshfree numerical method in the field of slope stability computations. There are many meshfree implementations of numerical methods. The article shows the results obtained using the meshfree localized Petrov-Galerkin method (MLPG) – localized weak-form of the equilibrium equations with an often used elastoplastic material model based on Mohr-Coulomb (MC) yield criterion. The most important aspect of MLPG is that the discretization process uses a set of nodes instead of elements. Node position within the computational domain is not restricted by any prescribed relationship. The shape functions are constructed using just the set of nodes present in the simple shaped domain of influence. The benchmark slope stability numerical model was performed using the developed meshfree computer code and compared with conventional finite element (FEM) and limit equilibrium (LEM) codes. The results showed the ability of the implemented theoretical preliminaries to solve the geotechnical stability problems.

Open access

Zuzana Grúňová, Miloslava Borošová Michalcová and Éva Vesztróczy

Abstract

Gothic architecture is one of the oldest surviving architecture in Slovakia. The Church of Pauline Order in Trebišov has many building phases; its entrance stone portal belongs to the later phase dated about the second half of the 15th century. Paper focuses on an architectural features and geometry of this portal. Portal has clearly a geometrical construction that is compared to another late gothic portal from church in Handlová. Conclusion suggests, that ratio of the entire portal dimensions is close to 4 : 3, proportions of jamb and opening widths are 1 : 4 : 1 part of the overall portal width and there highly probably existed some simple method of determining position of pointed arch arches.

Open access

Magdalena Rosińska-Bukowska

Abstract

The main objective of the article is to discuss the direction of changes in the strategies of the most powerful transnational corporations as a result of adjustments to the new challenges created by the growing role of human capital in contemporary international business. Based on the concept of Grounded Theory Methodology, the author will indicate the main pillars of the strategy which can be considered effective for new challenges. The study has been divided into three parts. The first part discusses the most important theoretical issues concerning the place of human capital in the strategies of contemporary enterprises. In the second part, the author characterizes new trends in international transfers of human capital. In the next part, based on the research, the author discusses the impact of changes on the organizational and management system of enterprises – on the example of the most powerful transnational corporations. The studies have shown that all the most powerful transnational corporations notice the growing role of intellectual capital in contemporary business. The basis of corporations’ strategies is the emphasis put on the development of subsystems of intellectual capital, which refers to the activation of international transfers of human capital. In consequence, the strategies of the development of the most powerful transnational corporations are based on three pillars: networking, orchestration, and coopetition, and they are based on the three subsystems of intellectual capital: organizational capital, innovations, and the institutional environment.