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Determinants of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory in Konta District, South Western Ethiopia

Abstract

Climate change becomes a widely acknowledged and inevitable global challenge of 21st century. For developing countries like Ethiopia, it intensifies existing challenges of ensuring sustainable development. This study examined factors affecting climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies by taking in Protection Motivation Theory. The study draws on mixed research approach in order to assess the subjective understanding about climate change threats and identify the factors determining responses to climate change. While qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews, quantitative information was collected using semi structured survey from 296 randomly selected farmers from different agro-ecologies. Qualitative data was dominantly analyzed using content analysis while descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze quantitative data. Almost all respondents (97%) perceived that climate change is occurring and threatening their wellbeing. Dwindling precipitation, increasing temperature and occurrence of human and animal disease were perceived to represent climate change. From nationally initiated strategies, farmers were found to largely practice soil and water conservation and agricultural intensification, which they perceived less costly and compatible to their level of expertise. The result of binary logistic regression revealed that perceived severity of climate change, perceived susceptibility to climate change threat, perceived own ability to respond, response efficacy and cost of practices predicted farmers motivation to practice climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. Thus, building resilient system should go beyond sensitizing climate response mechanisms. Rural development and climate change adaptation policies should focus on human capital development and economic empowerment which would enable farmers pursue context specific adaptation and mitigation strategies thereby maintain sustainable livelihood.

Open access
The Emergent Adult: Transition from School to Work

Abstract

This article approaches the topic of the emerging adulthood with young people in Romania, as well as the beginning of the first work experience. The main aim is to identify the factors of a successful transition from school to independent life. The article examines the social status and the issues the young people in Romania face with regard to the transition from education to employment. The data type longitudinal panel study refers to the cohort of young people born in 1994-1995, the generation which graduated from the 12th or 13th class in 2012. We answer the question „Which are the factors that determine the first work experience for Romanian young people and what does this look like?” Half of the young people have work experience - 50.1%, with 25.2% working at the time they filled in the questionnaires, two years after graduation. Employment is explained to an extent of 1% by gender and area of residence, 4% by factors of social exclusion and 1% by factors related to negative life events. All these factors explain the variance of 6% in the employment of young people. Linear regression analysis (hierarchical) showed that social inclusion factors have the greatest effect on employment, with 4% of employment variance explained by social exclusion factors, while the influence of the demographic variables, factors of social exclusion and factors related to negative life events explain 6% of the youth employment variance.

Open access
The Integration of Higher Education Graduates on the Labor Market

Abstract

The success of higher education graduates’ transition to the labor market is analyzed in this paper. A series of representative factors which influence the success rate on the labor market were analyzed through an exhaustive case study among graduates from West University of Timisoara. The results show a high level of satisfaction amongst graduates, despite the high level (over 40%) of total incongruence (vertical and horizontal) between the degree’s field and the actual workplace. We can also assert that the graduates’ insertion in the labor market is a real success, since most of them are able to get a job in less than 6 months from graduation (58.5%), even more do so 12 months post-graduation (83.9%).

Open access
Organizational Climate and Gender Differences in Work Engagement Among Non-Teaching Staff in a Nigerian University

Abstract

The paper examines the link between organizational climate and work engagement among the non-teaching staff of a Nigerian University. Participants consisted of 229 (F=46.7%; Mean age =45.7) non-teaching staff selected using stratified random sampling technique from non-teaching staff of the institution. Participants completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Organizational Climate Measure that were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test analysis. Results revealed that organizational climate is related to work engagement among registry staff. It also showed that female employees were more engaged with their work than their male counterparts. The paper recommends the design of appropriate strategies and interventions to ensure that employees feel more engaged in their work-roles.

Open access
Researching Consumer Research. An Analysis of Consumer Researchers in Austria with Some Implications for the Scientific Field and Consumer Policy

Abstract

Since over a decade, there are ongoing debates about the relationships between the scientific field of consumer research and the political field of consumer policy. To date, there exist theoretical overviews of the international state of the art in consumer research and its historical developments regarding topics, and theoretical and methodological advancements. There also exist few empirical studies which approached this field through content analysis of scientific articles, case studies or literature reviews. Nonetheless, prior research has yet neglected consumer researchers themselves and, above all, their stances toward consumer policy. To fill this gap, this article seeks to enhance knowledge about consumer researchers by presenting empirical results of a survey among Austrian consumer researchers. In contrast with previous research, this article relates its empirical findings to better understand how consumer research can become a more integrated and institutionalized research area, in Austria and elsewhere. As the results indicate, there are some commonalities in Austrian consumer research which may serve as a fertile ground for a closer integration of the field and which could enhance cooperation between the scientific and the political field. Yet, as this article shows, there also exist some obstacles, which may hinder such efforts. It concludes with some propositions for consumer research as a scientific field and discusses obstacles and prospects of a future collaboration between this scientific field and consumer policy. In doing so, this article seeks to contribute to the debate about a so-called “evidence-based” consumer policy suggesting that consumer policy can draw on a wide array of scientific perspectives and should not restrict itself to behavioural insights alone, a current trend in some European countries and in the European Commission. As will be shown, the Austrian case is furthermore informative to better understand internal and external (political) efforts to foster cooperation within consumer research and the relationship between consumer research and consumer policy.

Open access
Analysis of the Consumer Knowledge and Attitude toward Innovations in the Fashion Industry

Abstract

Taking into consideration the complex interaction between new emerging technologies and social transformations, the importance of consumer attitudes toward fashion innovations should not be ignored. There are thousands of new patents related to nanotechnology being announced each year being undoubtedly perceived as one of the fundamental technologies of the present century. When it comes to the fashion sector, nanotechnology offers an innovative mean of processing fabrics that could change the clothing industry. Previous studies conducted in the domain of technology revealed that consumer attitude toward nanotechnology is determined by the perceived risks and benefits of applying nanotechnology and consumer’s scepticism when encountering new challenges. This research aims to analyse the determinants that affect the consumer’s knowledge toward nanotechnologies used in the fashion industry in Romania. In this respect, I applied a questionnaire in the Romanian public universities to identify individuals’ attitude toward technology and their knowledge regarding the usage of nanotechnology in this industry. The consumer’s level of knowledge regarding the nanotechnology implementation in fashion production is expected to be influenced by their attitude toward technology. Also, the consumer’s requirements regarding the labelling of nanotextile are expected to be influenced by their level of nanotechnology knowledge.

Based on the empirical results, this study is intended to provide suggestions that could contribute to the expansion of the acceptance of the innovations applied in the clothing industry.

Open access
Analysis of the perception about the gender pay gap in the EU Member States

Abstract

The main aim of the paper is to investigate European Union people’s perceptions on the gender pay gap, concentrating on the differences between countries and social groups. The focus of our analysis is on the following research questions: a) Are people in countries with fewer low-wage earners more aware of the gender pay gap than the others? Are high educated people and older workers more affected by the gender pay inequalities? Descriptive statistics and logistic regression applied on 28093 observations extracted from EUROBAROMETER 87.4 (2017) confirmed the two hypotheses and brought in addition other interesting and somehow conflicting results. Namely, in some of the countries, people’ perceptions are not supported by statistical data. In Luxembourg and Belgium, for example, even though statistical data demonstrate that the gender pay gap is between the lowest among European Union countries the percentage of those who perceives the inequalities is very high, exceeding 70% in both countries. More than that, in certain countries like Romania, a large number of people considers that gender pay gap is an acceptable phenomenon. Our contribution to the literature is two-fold. First, we have analysed the perceptions on gender pay gap of a large number of respondents and correlated with the reality demonstrated by statistical data. Second, we drew the attention to the fact that closing the ‘gender pay gap’ should be a target of public and private policies especially in high-wage countries, whereas in low-wage countries, the policy makers should focus rather on closing the ‘countries pay gap’, i.e. ensuring that wages are brought closer to the European average, with many economic and social benefits (raising living standards of the citizens, reducing poverty and migration and so on).

Open access
Are Teaching and Research activities mutually exclusive? A Data Mining study on European Universities

Abstract

Universities all around the world operate by following several institutional missions, with a central purpose on teaching and research activities. The importance of each aspect alongside the connection between them provide a disputed topic in the literature, many authors confirming or rejecting the intuitive inverse relationship by using various means, more or less quantitative. This paper aims to examine the teaching and research dimensions of the research-active European universities from a data mining perspective. For each dimension previously considered we employ the K-means Clustering in order to identify the groups of similar higher education institutions and we analyze the insights produced by the results. In addition, we build some target variables considering the teaching and research outputs and we investigate their drivers by employing the Logistic Regression. Furthermore, we explore the controverted relationship between the two institutional missions we considered through the use of Correspondence Analysis. Preliminary results illustrate that the dataset contains two types of universities: a category of very large and prestigious institutions and a second group of small and medium sized institutions, quite different from each other. Interest insights are given by the third part of the study, in which the Correspondence Analysis confirms an inverse relationship between teaching and research activities. Unfortunately, this is very likely a consequence of the time constraint – both activities require the same limited resources and therefore increasing the teaching burden for academics may diminish the time and energy dedicated to research.

Open access
Big 4 and audit fees in the context of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards

Abstract

The main purpose of this article is to determine the impact that Big 4 companies have had after the adoption of IFRS became mandatory and if the level of the fees related to the audit services registered a significant increase. Thus, after a thorough research of the specialized studies, we analyzed the impact of financial reporting according to the International Financial Reporting Standards, determining how the audit fees were influenced and which was the impact of the largest companies targeted in this study. In order to determine the number of companies audited by Big 4, we analyzed all the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, during the period 2010-2018, which trade premium shares. It is obvious that the financial reporting according to the International Financial Reporting Standards increases the number of companies audited by Big 4, although there has audit fees with higher values. In the following, we will analyze the changes that have occurred in the audit market of Romania.

Open access