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Open access

Srđan Mladenov Jovanović

Abstract

Women’s magazines from former Yugoslavia have not seen much interest in scholarship. Seeking to fill this gap, an analysis of two interwar women’s magazines from Serbia and Croatia, the Woman and the World (Žena i svet) and the Croatian Woman (Hrvatica), respectively,has been conducted concentrating on the Weltanschauungen they promulgated. Žena i svet possessed what could be designated as fledgling feminism, even though by the end of its publishing period and the onset of World War II, it shifted its narratives towards patriarchy and nationalism, whilst Hrvatica was founded in order to specifically promulgate a highly patriarchal worldview.

Open access

Inga Pērkone

Abstract

This article is devoted to the theme of women and war in the films of Jānis Streičs, possibly the most influential Latvian film director. In the course of his career, which spanned nearly 50 years, Streičs made films that were popular in Latvia, as well as throughout the Soviet Union. He is one of the few Latvian film directors who managed to continue a comparatively stable career in the newly reindependent Republic of Latvia. Streičs skilfully used the canonised means of expression of classical cinema and superficially fulfilled the demands of socialist realism to provide appealing and life-asserting narratives for the audiences. Being a full-time film director at Riga Film Studio, and gradually becoming a master of the studio system, Jānis Streičs managed to subordinate the system to his own needs, outgrowing it and becoming an auteur with an idiosyncratic style and consistently developed topics.1 The most expressive elements of his visual style can be found in his war films, which are presented as women’s reflections on war.

In this article, Streičs’ oeuvre in its entirety provides the background for an analysis of two of his innovative war films. Meetings on the Milky Way (Tikšanās uz Piena ceļa, Latvia, 1985) rejects the classical narrative structure, instead offering fragmentary war episodes that were united by two elements – the road and women. In Carmen Horrendum (Latvia, 1989) Streičs uses an even more complicated structure that combines reality, visions and dreams. After watching this film, the only conclusion we can come to with certainty is that war does not have a woman’s face and, in general, war has no traces of humanity.

The aim of this article is to demonstrate how World War II, a theme stringently controlled by Soviet ideology, provided the impetus for a search for an innovative film language.

Open access

Łukasz Bis

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to introduce and rank information related to virtual reality as a new media phenomenon. In principle, in the Polish nomenclature, the term is so new that it is often confused, incomprehensible. This, in turn, translates into misunderstanding and the lack of the use of this communication channel.

The article is a review of literature. In the first part concepts such as augmented reality, augmented virtuality, mixed reality, virtual reality, and immersion will be explained. A short historical outline of the virtual reality will also be shown. Then - in the next part of the article - the author compares this communication channel with well-known, such as the Internet, television, radio. Next the author will determine what are the fields of application of this communication channel and its condition.

Open access

Justyna Masłyk

Abstract

The main purpose of this article is to present the results of research concerning the use of social media by companies from the SME sector in Podkarpackie Province. The article includes data obtained in the first stage of the study, which is a part of a research project on the use of social media in the area of creating the image of an organization / company as an employer.The survey covered the entire population of companies from the SME sector, which are registered in Podkarpackie Province (REGON database). The research phase, the results of which are presented in this article, mainly involved the analysis of data on companies from the SME sector in Podkarpackie Province in terms of their presence on the Internet (having an individual website, having company profiles on selected social networks).

The results of the first stage of the study confirm that the companies see the potential of the online presence / functioning in social media (more and more companies have their own website, Facebook profiles). The dynamics of changes in this area is definitely not adequate to the pace of new media development. On the basis of preliminary results of further stages of the research, it can also be concluded that in the vast majority of cases, however, these are non-strategic and non-systematic activities.

Open access

Camelia Cmeciu and Ioana Coman

Abstract

The lack of information from the organizations involved in a crisis situation and the high level of uncertainty may result in setting an emotional tone on social media and even in bringing radical political and social changes. Such an example is the Colectiv crisis in Romania. The fire, caused by a fireworks display, broke out at the Colectiv nightclub where almost 300 people were attending the “Goodbye to Gravity” band concert. 27 people died that night and the death toll reached 63 in December. This tragedy led to an online and offline civic uprising, Romanian citizens protesting against a corrupted political system. The scope of this study is to examine the emotion-filled dialogue on Twitter and to determine the evolution of coping strategies and collective action frames throughout this crisis which resulted in a social and political reform in Romania.

Open access

Sylwia Miazga

Abstract

The situation of refugees living in Poland depends not only on legal aspects. A very important role is also played by social factors, which optionally condition and influence the status of foreigners in our country. One of them is undoubtedly the way of presenting the described phenomenon in the media, as well as the attitude of Poles to refugees, and how our country guarantees them protection and enables them to find their place in the new reality. Analysis of the problems of immigrant families in Poland may provide valuable information to research the problem of refugees in a European context.

Open access

Dorota Wilk

Abstract

The broadcaster, who uses the possibility of functioning in the broadcasting media space as a social broadcaster, ensures not only independence from power centres, political parties and commercial entities, but also full control over the broadcast content. He consciously directs ithe message to a specific group of recipients, often a niche group, providing content that commercial and public stations avoid, considering it to be unattractive. The type of programmes broadcast is strictly defined by the role it has to fulfil, the requirements set by the legislator for social broadcasters and the possibilities resulting from having such status. This has a significant impact on the place it occupies in the media radio market.

Open access

Paul Coates

Abstract

Following the recent death of Andrzej Wajda, a reconsideration of his work is timely, and all the more so because he provides a reference point for many East Central European cinéastes. Thus this article uses his work as a main switching point between meditations on the issues his films raise. It theorises the status accorded History in them, and in Marxism in general, in relation to Walter Benjamin’s work on allegory and ruin, as well as to questions of characterisation. Also considered is the degree and nature of existentialism’s influence on this cinema, with blockages of choice foregrounded as necessarily entailing a thematics of doubling, contradiction and masking, and a reworking of the meaning of accusations of ‘treachery’ that have been a leitmotif of oppressed cultures, particularly when – as in cinema – access to the means of production depends on real or apparent collaboration with state authorities. The particular meaning of certain delays in production will also be considered, as will certain figures from the Polish culture (this writer’s primary specialisation) with an obvious ‘Baltic connection’, i.e. a Lithuanian origin, such as Tadeusz Konwicki and Czesław Miłosz. The thematics of doubling will finally be related to notions of ruination and of a filmic language adequate to it, which it will be argued may be seen prototypically in ‘the Zone’, Chris Marker’s name for a particular method of image-presentation, named in homage to that great Soviet film shot in Estonia, Andrei Tarkovsky’s Stalker (Сталкер, Russia, 1979). To revert to the title of Wajda’s final film Afterimage (Powidoki, Poland, 2016), and invoke Miłosz also, the Zone may be called the native realm, not only melancholic but also surprisingly utopian, of the after-image that is the ruin.

Open access

Khrystyna Golovko

Abstract

The article analyzes the key feature of Polish school of the literature of fact, specifically the journalistic work with the heroes of the materials that are the basis of the reportorial text. Peculiarities of characters typical for Polish reportage are analyzed . Further, the article explores the specific features of communicative strategies of Polish reporters, reportorial technique. For a better understanding the visual examples from reportorial text are provided.

Open access

Tomasz Wilkoń

Abstract

In this article the approach of thematic analysis of main Polish printed weekly reviews is applied. The author developed thematic division of research material and put much effort to completeness and explicitness. The author chose content analysis as research methodology and constructed a code book. After coding and analysis, conclusions were presented and discussed. There were also methodological inferences for future research.