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Open access

Vandana Singh and Manager Rajdeo Singh

Abstract

This investigation deals with the chemical composition and microstructural analysis of the iron object, a spear excavated from Sanur, Tamil Nadu- a megalithic site dated 300 B.C. to 50 A.D. Phase analysis and microstructural examination were carried using XRD, optical and variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Optical micrograph shows the equiaxed grain structure along with the Newman bands. Formation of Newman bands suggests that the original artifact was forged at high temperature followed by cooling, although not so rapid to produce the marked hardening. The absence of carbides at the grain boundary, within the grains and lower value of micro-hardness indicates that the iron spear was not subjected to the carburizing treatment. Results of corrosion characterization revealed that deterioration of excavated iron artifact is associated with the presence of chlorine in corrosion products. However, compact nature of the outer rust (goethite) was helpful in protecting the object. The formation of goethite [∝-FeOOH] layer may prevent the iron matrix suffering from attacks by other environmental factors due to its good continuity. In addition, less aerated environment of storage and no history of any cleaning of object were also helpful in preventing the iron spear from further deterioration.

Open access

Leizou Kaywood Elijah and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the distribution and contents of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from Amassoma axis of the Nun River, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The PAH contaminations in the river water samples was performed using GC-MS method. The results were similar for all of the three sampling stations. Six LMW PAHs: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene and five HMW PAHs: fluoranthene, pyrene benzo (a)anthracene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene were found. The ΣPAH concentration ranged from 0.111mg/L to 0.26mg/L. In this study, PAH fingerprint ratios for determining both petrogenic and pyrogenic (pyrolytic) PAH accumulation in the environment and Toxic equivalency factor (TEF) used to estimate relative toxicity of a PAH compared to that of BaP was employed. The Ph/An ratio for water samples were 0.00, 0.33 and 0.00 in three stations, while associated figures for Fl/Py ratio values were 0.67, 0.83 and 0.50 respectively. Pearson correlation matrice analysis reveals a positive correlation between the PAHs; this could indicate a common source for some of the PAHs, however, some were negatively correlated with each other. This behavior could indicate non-point source. A comparative analysis of PAHs concentrations in the water samples with WHO standards revealed that the results obtained in this study were within the permissible levels, however, carcinogen PAHs present in the water of the Amassoma axis, Nun River may pose a threats to human health.

Open access

Ameet Kumar, Aamna Balouch, Ashfaque Ahmed Pathan, Abdullah, Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani, Ali Muhammad Mahar, Muneeba Zubair and Benazir Laghari

Abstract

The remediation of organic and inorganic pollutants from the aqueous environment has touched a certain level with the development of research. Environmental pollution is increasing day by day due to industrial activities which cause a negative effect on human health and the ecosystem. Nowadays, heavy metals have a special concern due to its toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in nature. Toxic metals like chromium, nickel, arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium are the main contaminants of water because they are non-biodegradable in nature. Nickel is also a toxic metal, mostly used in industries because of its anticorrosion behaviour. As a consequence nickel is present in the wastage of electroplating, tableware, metal finishing, plastics manufacturing, nickel-cadmium batteries, fertilizers and mining industries and these waste have dangerous impact on the human health and environment and causes the diseases i.e. diarrhea, anemia, hepatitis, kidney damage, gastrointestinal distress, skin dermatitis, and central nervous system dysfunction. In the present review article, several techniques are discussed for the treatment of nickel from the industrial environment. The elimination of nickel from wastewater is not important only for economic purposes but also for environmental safety.

Open access

Joanna Makuchowska-Fryc

Abstract

Studies of the efficiency of Ni, Cu and Cd cations removal from water solutions were carried out, with the use of clay limestone, hen eggshells from eggs for consumption and hen eggshells after hatching, which main element is calcium carbonate. Hen eggshells are a waste product, which can be used as a substitute of clay limestone in removing heavy metals from wet flue gas desulphurisation installation. Mixed solutions of Ni, Cu and Cd were used in the research, with the composition similar to the waste water from wet flue gas desulphurisation installation: Ni (0.009-0.053 mmol/dm3), Cu (0.008-0.057 mmol/dm3) and Cd (0.003-0.008 mmol/dm3). The metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (F-AAS). Kinetics of the process was analysed and equilibrium parameters were estimated, taking into consideration changes of the solutions pH during the process duration. It was demonstrated that the dominating mechanism of cations removal is their binding in hydroxides and carbonates. The studies demonstrated comparable characteristics of hen eggshells versus clay limestone, in the context of their application in removal of heavy metal cations from solutions.

Open access

Przemysław Drzewicz, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki, Agata Drobniewska, Anna Zgadzaj, Adam Smoliński, Marcel Krzan and Anita Starzycka

Abstract

The oil containing drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem associated with oil and gas exploration. In Poland, the problem of the drilling waste has become important since starting of shale gas exploration. The results of thermal treatment of drilling waste from shale gas exploration are presented. It has been shown that organic content vaporized completely at temperature up to 500 °C. The main problem is high content of chloride, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium in the waste and its water leachate. Toxicity tests confirmed that high salinity of the samples pose important risk for environment. Due to the high content of barium, the drilling waste may be utilized in production of cement with high chemical and heat resistance and opaque to X-ray. Thermal treatment process is a viable option for remediation of the drilling waste; however, the product of the process needs further treatment in order to remove its high salinity.

Open access

Małgorzata Olek, Witold Żukowski and Jerzy Baron

Abstract

Combustion of fuels, including renewable fuels and thermal treatment of waste (CFCs, pesticides), is associated with emissions of pollutants including halogens. The reversible process of sorption/desorption of HCl, in a fluidized (bubbling) bed reactor (BFB), during co-combustion of Cl-materials, was carried out. The thermal decomposition of methylene chloride (DCM, CH2Cl2) in an inert sand bed with the addition of the hydroxyapatite sorbent (HAp, Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) was investigated. The process parameters were as follows: temperature - 930 °C, the air excess - 1.3, stream rate of CH2Cl2 - 50 cm3/h. The concentration of HCl, CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH3Cl, COCl2 in the exhaust gases were monitored online with FTIR spectroscopy. The main chlorine product was hydrogen chloride. Samples of unprocessed HAp, taken from the bed during the process, and solid apatite residues were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The content of chlorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3Cl) in the analyzed samples was respectively 11, 53 and 19 %. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed the molar ratio of Ca:P:Cl was: 1.00:0.36:0.01, 1.00:0.36:0.09, 1.00:0.37:0.04 respectively. The HAp could be used as an sorbent of the HCl(g) during combustion of materials containing chlorine.

Open access

Jakub M. Gac and Monika Petelczyc

Abstract

A method for the reconstruction of the dynamics of processes with discrete time, developed in our previous papers, has been applied for study the dynamics of concentration of sulfur dioxide in lower troposphere. For the analysis, recordings of sulfur dioxide concentration from four measurement stations located in Poland (two of them has been located in huge cities and two in rarely inhabited regions) were used. We managed to obtain the deterministic and stochastic component of this dynamics. In result, we estimate the lifetime of sulfur dioxide in troposphere and the increase of sulfur dioxide concentration influenced by anthropogenic sources.

Open access

Agata Zdyb and Stanisław Krawczyk

Abstract

Natural flavonoids quercetin, morin, fisetin and luteolin were studied as potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Spectroscopic methods were used to investigate the formation of dye/TiO2 nanoparticles assemblies and the development of their absorption spectra. The results show that the flavonoids adsorb well on TiO2 nanoparticles and this process causes the shift of absorption spectra from the near UV into the visible range of solar light. The mode of binding of the dye molecules on TiO2 surface is analyzed by comparison of spectral absorption properties and with the use of structural differences introduced by fisetin and luteolin for discrimination between several possibilities.

Open access

Jan Bogacki and Jarosław Zawadzki

Abstract

Magnetic material may be added to proppant, as the magnetic marker allows to determine the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. However, magnetic proppant may be also used in flowback fluid treatment and monitoring of environmental pollution. As a result of shale gas hydraulic fracturing, large volume of flowback fluid is created. Flow back fluid have similar properties to fracturing fluid, but it is potentially enriched with large amount of salts and organic compounds leached from shale. Magnetic proppant may serve as a heterogeneous catalyst during organic pollutants decomposition. Additionally, in case of leakage and consequently the fracturing fluid pollution, magnetic proppant is placed into the soil environment. It can be detected using magnetometric methods. This article discusses the above-mentioned issues based on the knowledge and experience of the authors and the literature review.