Currently, a significant problem of water and sewage management is the presence of human hormones, especially estrogens and progestagens, consumed by women in contraceptives and then excreted from the body. While other drugs are used by a small part of the population and rather sporadically, hormonal contraception is used by a large number of women, which contributes to their high concentration in sewage. Even relatively low estrogen concentrations (compared to other drugs) can have harmful effects on the body, disturbing the hormonal balance and leading to various endocrine disorders. In this paper the types of individual estrogen groups were characterized. Next, different methods of their removal from wastewater were presented. The parameters of estrogen removal efficiency depend on which parameters. Next, the effectiveness of each method was compared, also taking into account economic aspects. The work was summarized with appropriate conclusions.
This article presents the construction and technical concept for the use of an innovative repair of the airport pavement. It consists in embedding a prefabricated concrete slab in place of the excessively degraded surface of the existing slabs. In addition, the introduced technology of connecting adjacent panels together increases the spatial stiffness of the entire functional element and significantly increases the load-bearing capacity of the pavement. The results of laboratory and field tests presented in the article confirm the effectiveness of the technology used. As a result, the application of the reconstructing technology ensures the safety performance of aircraft operations at airports facilities.
The article discusses the methodological principles of typology and design of architectural environment’s objects with the analysis of its system-structural foundations. According to them, hierarchical levels of formation and stages of environmental systems and objects’ design are revealed with some examples of author’s designs. The research is based on systemic and environmental approaches that make it possible to view the architectural environment’s objects as hierarchically subordinate.
The article presents the research of thermal comfort based on the Fanger model. The research was conducted in three educational rooms. The study involved 98 people whose age is between 19 and 23 years old. The study consisted in measuring the parameters of the thermal environment. During the research, students completed surveys regarding the thermal sensation. On the basis of the research, the predicted mean vote PMV score and the predicted percentage of dissatisfied PPDs were determined. This made it possible to compare the assessment of respondents with those indicated according to the standard, which showed that the Fanger model does not reflect the results of the respondents. The best solution will be to modify the Fanger model.
Sewage sludge is a by-product of wastewater treatment processes. However, it has high fertilising and soil-forming properties, but it cannot always be used for this purpose. The two main criteria limiting their natural use are heavy metals and parasite eggs. Sewage sludge taken from the Daleszyce wastewater treatment plant has been analysed for heavy metals. For this purpose a space analysis was performed to divide the total metal content into four mobility fractions. The mobility issue determines the ability of an element, or one of its forms, to move in the environment. The studies were performed using a four-stage BCR procedure. The results were analyzed and compared to the limits applicable in Poland for sewage sludge intended for environmental use.
The paper is focused on diagnostics of reinforced concrete structure of the tribune of Závodisko Bratislava. The structure was realized by a combination of monolithic and prefabricated concrete elements as well as steel load-bearing elements. The complex state of the rough construction was evaluated, including the verification survey of the foundation of the construction. Non-destructive and destructive methods were used. Based on the results of the diagnostics and recalculation, it was decided to further progress the finish of the tribune.
On the basis of use of modern research methods, the requirements for designing new types of teaching and educational complexes “Kindergarten – Primary School” were determined. It was established that the form and methods of kindergarten education have a certain analogy with the education in the first grades of primary school, which is one of the factors of feasibility of blocking and cooperation of the senior kindergarten groups with the elementary grades of general education schools and the formation of teaching and educational complexes on this basis, which enables receptiveness to demographic fluctuations and, if necessary, change of the function of kindergarten to the function of primary school, and vice versa – the flexibility and multivariance of the teaching environment is one of main conceptual provisions in building of network and typology of educational facilities at the present stage, on the basis of which the structural elements of school network in massive restrained urban development are formed.
Practical use of a new type of combustion waste such as an agricultural biomass fly ash in the building materials requires an assessment of its performance. The paper presents the investigation results on the influence of cement substitution (5% and 30%) by this ash on the cement and polymer-cement composites resistance to carbonation. The composites resistance was assessed on the basis of carbonation process over time (up to 360 days) using the phenolphthalein method. It was found that fly ash from agricultural biomass increases the susceptibility to carbonation of polymer-cement composites to a lesser extent than cement composites compared to composites containing siliceous coal fly ash.