Gardens are generally associated with places that are aesthetically pleasing and perceived as promoters of social engagement within the community. Furthermore, gardens are believed to improve both the individuals’ physical and psychological state of mind. However, and contrary to the previous statements, gardens may also sometimes turn into a site of agony. One such example has been explored in this article- the tea gardens of India during the nineteenth century, where their inhabitants faced a cholera pandemic. The gardens infected with cholera led to a high mortality rate in the region. This article discusses the causes that led to the cholera outbreak in India and how it spread throughout the region, causing tea gardens to turn into ailing gardens. Moreover, emphasis has also been laid on the role of tea gardens as laboratories where vaccine administration against cholera was performed.
This article discusses the concept of therapeutic garden— its definition and importance, — in the context of the specific architecture of sanatoria for the treatment of tuberculosis, in particular the case of Lisbon’s sanatoria from 1870 to 1970.
It contemplates both national and international networks of circulation and transfer of knowledge before and after the medical and architectural revolutions at the turn of the twentieth century. These revolutions were accompanied by significant changes in the city’s structure concerning the control of epidemics and social diseases. Architects and physicians, among other experts, are the main characters to be scrutinized, alongside with their architectural and scientific production and their entanglements. At the same time, I seriously take into consideration their interactions with the spheres of power, specifically in what relates to management and decision making.
The purpose of this article is to explore the role of gardens in the architecture of hospitals of the so-called “carioca school” of architecture, between the years of 1930 and 1960. In other words, to analyze gardens in the works of carioca architects who surrounded the architect Lucio Costa, or whose projects were influenced by the conceptions of this first generation of modern architects, who first graduated architecture school at the National College of Fine Arts and then, after 1945, at the National College of Architecture, in Rio de Janeiro.
The importance of gardens in the architecture of hospitals was mentioned in Edward Stevens’s book “The American hospital of the twentieth century”, in 1918, a publication which can be found at the UFRJ Architecture School library, as well as in the Brazilian doctors’ book collections at the time. Stevens dedicates a chapter of this book to the landscape theme, where he states that the hospital designer and the landscape architect should work together.
On the other hand, Pasteur’s discoveries and their implications in the management of hospital space did not occur without the mediation of landscaping. They resulted in changes when it came to choose the site for the hospital building within a city, as well as in its formal typology - from the Tollet model of pavilions, to the existence of green areas surrounding high buildings, and overlapping nurseries.
It is also relevant to bear in mind that public nationalist buildings played an important role after the revolution of 1930 in Brazil as they represented the state, and this resulted in significant projects.
We are therefore going to present four hospital buildings which were analyzed in our research on the integration of the Arts in the architecture of hospitals. Although the Lagoa Hospital, by Oscar Niemeyer, the Sanatorium Complex of Curicica, by Sérgio Bernardes, the IPPMG, by Jorge Machado Moreira, and the Souza Aguiar Hospital, by Ary Garcia Roza, all have different programs, formal typologies and links with their surrounding area, they are good examples for debating the presence of gardens in the Modern architecture of hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Three of these examples have fortunately included projects by landscape designer Roberto Burle Marx - the Lagoa Hospital, the IPPMG and the Souza Aguiar Hospital. The two former hospitals have had their buildings be surrounded by large gardens, in order to mitigate the harmful health effects related to the inclusion of hospitals within urban areas. The latter has been built in the 1960s with a complex program, in a dense historical area downtown, but adjacent to an urban park. It includes a vertical garden, which delimits, along with a panel in the hall (also by the same designer), a hallway for the user, between the urban and the healing space.
The immediate surroundings of hospitals assume great relevance in treatment therapies, whether the basis of isolation, fresh air and the use of exposure to the sun. It is thus known that the emergence of a new health program in neoclassical hospitals built in the city of Rio de Janeiro was directly associated with urban and sanitary improvements. The article explores the context of the creation and the role played by gardens in the architectural production of hospitals in the imperial period in Brazil during the nineteenth century, as well as in exposing the health policy of the city.
The different combinations between the “classic” fourfold pattern and water in the garden have produced a high number of varied solutions since the distant past. However, during the Renaissance a new model emerges: a crossaxial garden with four basins arranged symmetrically around its center. The composite analysis of the related examples is addressed in this paper, which attempts to find an explanation for the different models as for the appearance of the contrasting solution at the same time in two different locations: the Villa Lante (Bagnaia, Italy) and the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo in El Escorial (Madrid, Spain).