Classical non-peptide hormones, such as steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormones, vitamin D3 and their derivatives including prostaglandins, benzoates, oxysterols, and bile acids, are collectively designated as small lipophilic ligands, acting via binding to the nuclear receptors (NRs). The NRs form a large superfamily of transcription factors that participate virtually in every key biological process. They control various aspects of animal development, fertility, gametogenesis, and numerous metabolic pathways, and can be misregulated in many types of cancers. Their enormous functional plasticity, as transcription factors, relates in part to NR-mediated interactions with plethora of coregulatory proteins upon ligand binding to their ligand binding domains (LBD), or following covalent modification. Here, we review some general views of a specific group of NR coregulators, so-called nuclear receptor coactivators (NRCs) or steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) and highlight some of their unique functions/roles, which are less extensively mentioned and discussed in other reviews. We also try to pinpoint few neglected moments in the cooperative action of SRCs, which may also indicate their variable roles in the hormone-independent signaling pathways.
Retinoic acid (RA), an active form of vitamin A, regulates the embryonic development, male and female reproduction and induces important effects on the cell development, proliferation, and differentiation. These effects are mediated by the retinoid (RAR) and rexinoid nuclear receptors (RXR), which are considered to be a ligand-activated, DNA-binding, trans-acting, and transcription-modulating proteins, involved in a general molecular mechanism responsible for the transcriptional responses in target genes. Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine disrupting substances. They may affect processes of reproductive system in mammals, predominantly via nuclear receptor signaling pathways. Triorganotins, such as tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) and triphenyltin chloride (TPTCl), are capable to bind to RXR molecules, and thus represent potent agonists of RXR subtypes of nuclear receptors not sharing any structural characteristics with endogenous ligands of nuclear receptors. Th is article summarizes selected effects of biologically active retinoids and rexinoids on both male and female reproduction and also deals with the effects of organotin compounds evoking endocrine disrupting actions in reproduction.
Guven Baris Cansu, B. Taskiran, T. Bakar and B.P. Cengiz
Objective. Suture granuloma, the rare complication of thyroidectomy, results from the use of nonabsorbable suture materials. Despite its typical ultrasound images and benign course, it carries utmost importance in the diff erential diagnosis of lymph nodes, recurrent nodules, and recurrence in the case of thyroid cancers.
Subject and Results. Fifty four years old female patient, who underwent bilateral thyroidectomy in July 2010, was diagnosed with multinodular goiter and incidentally discovered micropapillary carcinoma (2 mm). Four years later, she was readmitted to hospital due to painless swelling in the right and left anterior neck region. Ultrasonography revealed nodules with irregular boundaries, containing micro- and macro-calcifications and hyperechoic lines in both sides of the thyroid bed and isthmus. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in the right and left sided mass and the cytological examination was compatible with the diagnosis of the suture granuloma.
Conclusions. Suture granuloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the local recurrence
Dmytro O. Minchenko, A. P. Kharkova, O. V. Halkin, L. L. Karbovskyi and O. H. Minchenko
Objective. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2), their receptor (IGF1R), binding protein-4 (IGFBP4), and stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of tumor growth.
Methods. The expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGFBP4, and STC2 genes in U87 glioma cells transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control) and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnIRE1) upon hypoxia was studied by qPCR.
Results. The expression of IGF1 and IGF2 genes is down-regulated in glioma cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function in comparison with the control cells. At the same time, the expression of IGF1R, IGFBP4, and STC2 genes was up-regulated in glioma cells upon inhibition of IRE1, with more significant changes for IGFBP4 and STC2 genes. We also showed that hypoxia does not change significantly the expression of IGF1, IGF2, and IGF1R genes but up-regulated IGFBP4 and STC2 genes expression in control glioma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 in glioma cells does not change significantly the effect of hypoxia on the expression of IGF1, IGF1R, and IGFBP4 genes but introduces sensitivity of IGF2 gene to hypoxic condition. Thus, the expression of IGF2 gene is resistant to hypoxia only in control glioma cells and significantly down-regulated in cells without functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme, which is central mediator of the unfolded protein response and an important component of the tumor growth as well as metabolic diseases.
Conclusions. Results of this study demonstrate that the expression of IGF1 and IGF1R genes is resistant to hypoxic condition both in control U87 glioma cells and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function. However, hypoxia significantly up-regulates the expression of IGFBP4 gene independently on the inhibition of IRE1 enzyme. These data show that proteins encoded by these genes are resistant to hypoxia except IGFBP4 and participate in the regulation of metabolic and proliferative processes through IRE1 signaling.
M. Schiavone, G. Putoto, F. Laterza and Damiano Pizzol
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance that occurs for the first time or it is first identified during pregnancy. The GDM etiology is multifactorial. It has not completely been established yet and several known risk factors may contribute to its onset. To date, there are no shared guidelines on the management and follow-up, especially regarding the low-income countries. In this paper, we describe the state of art about epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of GDM. Moreover, we focus on the current state in low income countries trying to outline basis for further research.
The present knowledge, regarding the neuronal growth and neurite extension, includes neuropeptide action in the central nervous system. Research reports have brought much information about the multiple intracellular signaling pathways of neuropeptides. However, regardless of the differences in the local responses elicited by neuropeptides, there exist certain functional similarities in the effects of neuropeptides, mediated by their receptors. In the present review, data of the relevant studies, focused on G protein-coupled receptors activated by neuropeptides, are summarized. Particularly, receptors that activate phosphatidylinositol-calcium system and protein kinase C pathways, resulting in the reorganization of the neuronal cytoskeleton and changes in the neuronal morphology, are discussed. Based on our data received, we are showing that oxytocin increases the gene expression of GTPase cell division cycle protein 42 (Cdc42), implicated in many aspects of the neuronal growth and morphology. We are also paying a special attention to neurite extension and retraction in the context of neuropeptide regulation.
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) represent a newly discovered class of regulatory molecules in the human body. miRNA is a short double stranded RNA sequence interfering with mRNA, causing in most cases, inhibition of translation. Synthesis of miRNAs shows an increasing developmental pattern and postnatally miRNAs are synthesized in all cells possessing transcriptional machinery. miRNAs usually target several mRNAs and therefore conclusive evidences proving their functions are not always ease to be acquired. In spite of this difficulty, functions of miRNAs were firmly established in the development, the cardiovascular and neural diseases, and cancer. Many miRNAs have been reported to be associated with physiological state of cells and/or tissues. This finding becomes fundamental, especially when consider that these miRNAs can be released from cell into intracellular space or circulation. Correlation between miRNA production in tissues and its contribution to multisource miRNA pool in the circulation is in a focus of biomarker-oriented researchers. Recently, circulating miRNAs have been suggested to be applicable as biomarkers in several types of cancer, cardiovascular injury, and diabetes. Role of miRNAs in the organism intercellular signaling is still under the broad investigation. Several miRNA mimics, intended for treatment of disease, are being currently tested in the clinical trials.
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules of increasing biologists’ interest. miRNAs, unlikely mRNA, do not encode proteins. It is a class of small double stranded RNA molecules that via their seed sequence interact with mRNA and inhibit its expression. It has been estimated that 30% of human gene expression is regulated by miRNAs. One miRNA usually targets several mRNAs and one mRNA can be regulated by several miRNAs. miRNA biogenesis is realized by key enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. miRNA/mRNA interaction depends on binding to RNA-induced silencing complex. Today, complete commercially available methodical proposals for miRNA investigation are available. There are techniques allowing the identification of new miRNAs and new miRNA targets, validation of predicted targets, measurement of miRNAs and their precursor levels, and validation of physiological role of miRNAs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. miRNAs have been shown to influence gene expression in several endocrine glands, including pancreas, ovary, testes, hypothalamus, and pituitary.
Hakki Yilmaz, M. Cakmak, B. Ceydilek, C. Demir and A. Aktas
Objective. Interleukin-35 (IL-35), an interleukin-12 (IL-12) cytokine family member, is shown to be a potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory cytokine. Inducible regulatory T cells (Tregs) produce IL-35 that mediates the immune inhibitory function of Tregs. Growing evidence revealed that upregulation of IL-35 expression may play a critical role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases in various experimental autoimmunity models and vice versa. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be a Treg cell-related autoimmune disease with loss of self-tolerance.
Methods. One hundred-twenty eight subjects, newly diagnosed hypothyroid HT patients [56 overt (Group 1), 72 subclinical hypothyroid (Group 2)] and 38 healthy controls (Group 3) were enrolled in the study. The levels of serum IL-35 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results. Serum IL-35 levels were lower in the HT group when compared with subclinical HT group [304.5 (834.6) pg/ml vs. 636.1 (1542.0) pg/ml, p=0.004] and control cases [304.5 (834.6) pg/ml vs. 1064.7 (2526.8) pg/ml, p<0.001]. Serum IL-35 levels were inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; rs=-0.396, p<0.001) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb; rs=-0.571, p<0.001) in whole group. Serum IL-35 were negatively associated with TSH (rs=-0.264, p=0.003) and TPOAb (rs=-0.735, p<0.001) in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (Group 1 + Group 2).
Conclusion. The results suggest that IL-35 may play a role in the pathogenesis of HT.