The proper classification of sharp and infectious waste in situ by the healthcare workers is an
important measure of prevention of sharps and other exposure incidents in non-healthcare workers, who handle such waste. The aim was to examine the practice of classifying sharp and infectious waste in family and dental practices.
An analysis of 50 bags of infectious and 50 bags of municipal waste from five family and five dental practices for five days in October 2016 at the Health centre Osijek.
Healthcare workers in 70% of the practices deposited sharps in infectious waste. In 56% of infectious waste bags, sharp object were found. More risky bags of infectious waste were produced by family practices (64%), but with no significant differences in relation to dental practices (48%), (P=0.143). Disposing of infectious into municipal waste was the case in 90% of the practitioners, where in 60% of municipal waste bags, infectious waste was disposed. Dental practices produced more risky bags of municipal waste (76%) in relation to family practices (44%), but with no significant difference (P=0.714).
The results of this research point to importance of performing audits of proper disposal of sharps and infectious waste to reduce the risks of injury to non-healthcare workers who come into contact with the said waste. Given results could be used for framing written protocols of proper disposal of sharps and infectious waste that should be visibly available in family and dental practices and for education of healthcare workers.
Vesna Zadnik, Elodie Guillaume, Katarina Lokar, Tina Žagar, Maja Primic Žakelj, Guy Launoy and Ludivine Launay
Ecological deprivation indices belong to essential instruments for monitoring and understanding health inequalities. Our aim was to develop the SI-EDI, a newly derived European Deprivation Index for Slovenia. We intend to provide researchers and policy-makers in our country with a relevant tool for measuring and reducing the socioeconomic inequalities in health, and even at a broader level.
Data from the European survey on Income and Living Conditions and Slovenian national census for the year 2011 were used in the SI-EDI construction. The concept of relative deprivation was used where deprivation refers to unmet need(s), which is caused by lack of all kinds of resources, not only material. The SI-EDI was constructed for 210 Slovenian municipalities. Its geographical distribution was compared to the distribution of two existing deprivation scores previously applied in health inequality research in Slovenia.
There were 36% of adults recognized as deprived in Slovenia in 2011. SI-EDI was calculated using 10 census variables that were associated with individual deprivation. A clear east-to-west gradient was detected with the most deprived municipalities in the eastern part of the country. The two existing deprivation scores correlate significantly with the SI-EDI.
A new deprivation index, the SI-EDI, is grounded on the internationally established scientific concept, can be replicated over time and, crucially, provides an account of the socioeconomic and cultural particularities of the Slovenian population. The SI-EDI could be used by the stakeholders and the governmental and nongovernmental sectors in Slovenia, with the goal of better understanding health inequalities in Slovenia.
Marija Petek Šter, Ljiljana Cvejanov Kezunović, Milena Cojić, Davorina Petek and Igor Švab
One of the aims of health care reform in Montenegro is to strengthen primary care. An important step forward is the implementation of specialty training in family medicine (FM). The aim of this article is to evaluate the implementation of specialty training in family medicine in Montenegro, regarding the content, structure and methods, by the first generation of trainees and the coordinator of the training.
A questionnaire was sent by mail in July and August 2017 to all 26 eligible trainees who started specialty training in 2013. Twenty-two of the 26 trainees (84.6%) responded. The questionnaire consisted of closed and open-ended questions related to the evaluation of the training. A descriptive quantitative and qualitative analysis with predefined themes and a semi-structured interview with the coordinator were carried out.
The process of training in FM was assessed positively by both trainees and the coordinator. The positive assessment included that the specialisation course offered modern design through modules and practice, and trainees both improved their existing knowledge and skills and acquired new ones necessary for everyday work. The coordinator emphasised the importance of the introduction of new teaching methods and formative assessment, the important role of mentors, and the involvement of Slovenian colleagues in the teaching process and supervision of the programme.
The implementation of speciality training in FM in Montenegro was successful. Several assessment methods were used that can be further developed in individual structured feedback, which could stimulate the continual improvement of trainees’ knowledge and competencies.
The quality of breathing air plays a key role in the safety of divers and hyperbaric facilities. Paradoxically, the change of regulations concerning quality requirements for breathing mixes has imposed the need for verification of the technical and laboratory bases used in their production and control. This article presents the results of research related to the rationalisation of the process of production and supply of breathing air for the purposes of hyperbaric oxygenation. The work was carried out using the SixSigma method.
Therapy with hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT) was first used in pediatrics in Russia in the 1920s (1927). At present, HBOT is used in children in similar indications as in adults, as well as in perinatal, neurologic and neuro-developmental conditions, even though there is only limited evidence of it offering any benefit for such conditions. The aim of this publication is to present current indications and risks of the use of HBOT in children.
When a man has mastered the ability to travel by sea, he began to wonder what is the depth clearance under the keel and how to measure the depth. Initially, only coastal shipping was practiced. Cargo ship sailing, fishery, underwater scientific research, recreational diving as well as resource exploration and operation of submarine cables and pipelines laying were developing dynamically in this part of the continental shelf. That is why accurate bathymetric information was of great importance to masters, scientists, fishermen, ship-owners and all seafarers.
Cartographic compilation of even a primitive nautical chart was a huge challenge. It was a painstaking process and required, first and foremost, a large amount of data, which was primarily obtained through not efficient measurements. As technology progresses, new techniques and methods of ocean exploration have developed. The technology, systems, devices and instruments of underwater exploration have gone through a long way of change, modernization and improvements, ultimately creating the potential for a bottom surface visualization as three-dimensional spatial models. A significant role has been played by multibeam echosounder which revolutionized the hydrographic surveys and proved to be efficient means of hydrographic and oceanographic surveys.
Gabriela Henrykowska, Andrzej Buczyński, Małgorzata Lewicka and Magdalena Zawadzka
During the last decades, there has been a rapid development in the research and use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), and modern medicine is increasingly taking advantage of its beneficial effects. The aim of the study was to check the level of knowledge of future doctors (medical students) on hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
The survey was conducted among 240 students of the medical faculty (3rd and 5th year of study) of the Military and Medical Faculty of the Medical University of Lodz. The author’s questionnaire with forced-choice questions was used as research tool.
The students’ knowledge of hyperbaric oxygen therapy was varied and in some cases was not dependent on the year of study. It was observed that students’ knowledge of the subject matter depends on the number of teaching hours allocated to it.
Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki, Małgorzata Dąbrowiecka, Romuald Olszański and Piotr Siermontowski
Pathogenic micro-organisms can easily transfer from the surface of a diver’s skin onto the surfaces of a protective suit. A long-term stay in a hyperbaric chamber during a saturation dive increases the risk of infection if in the chamber there is even a single carrier of disease-causing pathogens.
The conducted research has confirmed that the diving equipment located in Diving Centres is a place of many different bacteria and fungi, including pathogenic ones. The vast majority of microbes found on the surfaces of wetsuits, etc. are commensals (with some being opportunistic organisms). This fact allows us to realise that the surfaces of diving equipment are an excellent “transmission route” for various dermatoses and other diseases. In order to reduce the risk of infection the diving equipment used by various people should be subject to the process of decontamination. The authors recommend decontamination with the use of gaseous hydrogen peroxide which does not cause damage to equipment.
Dorota Niewiedział, Magdalena Kolańska, Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki, Mateusz Jerzemowski, Piotr Siermontowski, Zdzisław Kobos and Romuald Olszański
The aim of the article is to conduct a literature review in relation to the psychological aspects of diving. The acquired knowledge can currently be qualified as belonging to various branches of applied psychology, as well as underwater medicine, sports medicine, psychiatry and psychotherapy. The literature on this subject matter raises two main issues of the psychological perspective: the degree of psychological adaptation of an individual to the underwater environment, and the psychophysical condition of a man involved in a specific type of diving and the resulting skills/competences to perform underwater tasks. The article presents selected reports from around the world related to diving psychology resulting from the applied structure/classification of psychological theories, explaining various mechanisms of psychological functioning underwater. The paper presents studies from the perspective of psychodynamics, psychology of health/stress, psychology of individual differences and personality. The main conclusions indicate that in addition to the main problem of an optimal/lack of adaptation of humans to the underwater environment, there is insufficient psychological knowledge (including Polish reports) in the area of personality differences between various types of divers, their social functioning, mental health and psychoeducation with regard to underwater exposures.
Jerzy K. Garbacz, Jacek Cieściński, Jerzy Ciechalski, Ryszard Dąbkowski and Jolanta Cichowska
This paper presents an analysis of thermal and oxygen conditions of the Charzykowskie Lake in the years 2014-2016 in the period from May to August. The measurements were carried out once a month, at points representing three different basins in the lake, and the temperatures and oxygen content dissolved in the water were recorded every 1m from the surface to the bottom at the deepest point of each basin. The changes in temperatures and content of dissolved oxygen were analysed in each of the representative measurement points for particular parts of the lake. It has been shown that the deficit of oxygen dissolved in the bottom layers of the water starts occurring by the beginning of the summer stagnation period, whereas at its peak (August) the anaerobic zone includes hypolimnion and part of the metalimnion. The hypothesis that the thickness of the thermal layers varies within the lake basin was confirmed. It was also shown that the oxygen content curve at representative points, in all years of research, evolves to the form of a clinograde at the peak of summer stagnation, where the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreases with the depth.